Setting-up a Real-Time Air Quality Forecasting system for Serbia: a WRF-Chem feasibility study with different horizontal resolutions and emission inventories
- 55 Downloads
In this paper, the influence of the horizontal model grid size and anthropogenic gridded emissions on the air quality forecast in Serbia was analyzed using the online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). For that purpose, six simulations were performed. The model horizontal grid size was 20 × 20 km, 10 × 10 km, and 5 × 5 km. Two anthropogenic gridded emission inventories with different grid sizes were used, the global RETRO (REanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition) and the EMEP (The European Monitoring and Evaluation Program) for each model horizontal grid size. The modeled O3, NO2, and PM10 concentrations in all six simulations were compared with the measured hourly data at the Serbian Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) stations and an EMEP station during August 2016. The analysis shows that the influence of the model grid size is larger on PM10 than on the O3 and NO2 concentration. The concentration of O3 and PM10 has a similar dependence on the emissions and the model grid size, while NO2 has a larger dependence on the emission than on the model grid size. The simulation with the 5 × 5 km grid size and the EMEP anthropogenic emissions has optimal performance compared with the measured concentration. In this optimal simulation, the modeled O3 concentrations overestimated the measured values at 3 stations and underestimated the measured values at 2 stations. At most stations, the modeled NO2 concentrations underestimated the measured values. The modeled PM10 concentrations highly underestimated the measured values at all stations.
KeywordsAir quality modeling WRF-Chem model Model grid size Anthropogenic gridded emissions
The author would also like to thank the Serbian Environmental Protection Agency for providing the measured data. The computing resources for this research were provided by AXIOM, which is operated by the Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia.
The paper is a part of the research done within the project “Air quality forecast in the Vojvodina region” (142-451-3608/2017-01), financed by the government of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, and “Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation” (III43007), financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia within the framework of integrated and interdisciplinary research and technological development for the period of 2011–2018.
- Badia A, Jorbal O, Voulgarakis A, Dabdub D, García-Pando CP, Hilboll A, Gonçalves M, Janjic Z (2017) Description and evaluation of the Multiscale Online Nonhydrostatic AtmospheRe CHemistry model (NMMB-MONARCH) version 1.0: gas-phase chemistry at global scale. Geosci Model Dev 10:609–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Baklanov A, Schlünzen K, Suppan P, Baldasano J, Brunner D, Aksoyoglu S, Carmichael G, Douros J, Flemming J, Forkel R, Galmarini S, Gauss M, Grell G, Hirtl M, Joffre S, Jorba O, Kaas E, Kaasik M, Kallos G, Kong X, Korsholm U, Kurganskiy A, Kushta J, Lohmann U, Mahura A, Manders-Groot A, Maurizi A, Moussiopoulos N, Rao ST, Savage N, Seigneur C, Sokhi RS, Solazzo E, Solomos S, Sørensen B, Tsegas G, Vignati E, Vogel B, Zhang Y (2014) Online coupled regional meteorology chemistry models in Europe: current status and prospects. Atmos Chem Phys 14:317–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Im U, Bianconi R, Solazzo E, Kioutsioukis I, Badia A, Balzarini A, Baro R, Bellasio R, Brunner D, Chemel C, Curci G, Flemming J, Forkel R, Giordano L, Jimenez-Guerrero P, Hirtl M, Hodzic A, Honzak L, Jorba O, Knote C, Kuenen JJP, Makar PA, Manders-Groot A, Neal L, Perez JL, Pirovano G, Pouliot G, San Jose R, Savage N, Schroder W, Sokhi RS, Syrakov D, Torian A, Tuccella P, Werhahn K, Wolke R, Yahya K, Žabkar R, Zhang Y, Zhang J, Hogrefe C, Galmarini S (2015a) Evaluation of operational online-coupled regional air quality models over Europe and North America in the context of AQMEII phase 2. Part I: ozone. Atmos Environ 115:404–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Im U, Bianconi R, Solazzo E, Kioutsioukis I, Badia A, Balzarini A, Baro R, Bellasio R, Brunner D, Chemel C, Curci G, Denier van der Gon HAC, Flemming J, Forkel R, Giordano L, Jimenez-Guerrero P, Hirtl M, Hodzic A, Honzak L, Jorba O, Knote C, Makar PA, Manders-Groot A, Neal L, Perez JL, Pirovano G, Pouliot G, San Jose R, Savage N, Schroder W, Sokhi RS, Syrakov D, Torian A, Tuccella P, Werhahn K, Wolke R, Yahya K, Žabkar R, Zhang Y, Zhang J, Hogrefe C, Galmarini S (2015b) Evaluation of operational online-coupled regional air quality models over Europe and North America in the context of AQMEII phase2. Part II: particulate matter. Atmos Environ 115:404–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Korsholm US, Baklanov A, Gross A, Mahura A, Sass BH, Kaas E (2008) Online coupled chemical weather forecast-ing based on HIRLAM – overview and prospective of Enviro-HIRLAM. HIRLAM Newsl 54:151–168Google Scholar
- Mahura A, Nuterman R, Gonzalez-Aparicio I, Amstrup B, Yang X, Baklanov A (2016) Meteorological and chemical urban scale modelling for Shanghai metropolitan area, Geophys Res Abstr, 18, EGU2016-1394, EGU General Assembly 2016, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
- Mahura A, Amstrup B, Nuterman R, Yang X, Baklanov A (2017) Multi-scale Enviro-HIRLAM forecasting of weather and atmospheric composition over China and its megacities, Geophys Res Abstr, 19, EGU2017-9564, EGU General Assembly 2017, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar