Past and emerging topics related to electronic waste management: top countries, trends, and perspectives

  • Daniel Fernandes Andrade
  • João Paulo Romanelli
  • Edenir Rodrigues Pereira-FilhoEmail author
Research Article


A bibliometric analysis was performed to assess historical and recent research trends regarding e-waste studies from 1998 to 2018. Documents related to e-waste were identified from the Clarivate Analytics Web of Science© (WoS) database, and a total of 3311 academic articles was retrieved. The analysis was performed from four main aspects: (1) publication activity by year, by WoS category, and by geographic distribution; (2) journals; (3) most-cited papers; and (4) top 10 countries and author keyword analysis. The number of publications concerning e-waste issues has increased substantially over the last 20 years, especially in the environmental science category, and more than a third of the publications were produced in China (1181 records). Waste Management and Environmental Science & Technology were the most sought-after journals for disseminating the results. Studies related to “e-waste flow analysis,” “recycling,” “recovery of precious metals,” and “risk assessment of recycling areas” have been the most common for several years. The analysis of keywords suggested that there are many topics on electronic waste and that each country has presented a different focus of research. Overall, the bibliometric analysis proved to be an efficient tool with which to monitor historical and current research trends and to evaluate the sheer volume of currently existing scientific literature on e-waste topics.


E-waste WEEE International waste management VOSviewer Bibliometric mapping Bibliometric indicator 



The authors are grateful to the Research Foundation of São Paulo (Fapesp, grants 2016/17304-0 and 2016/01513-0), which supported this study and to the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq for financially supporting this work (Projects 401074/2014-5, 305637/2015-0). This study was financed in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5089_MOESM1_ESM.docx (6.6 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 6774 kb)


  1. Abbasi G, Buser AM, Soehl A, Murray MW, Diamond ML (2015) Stocks and flows of PBDEs in products from use to waste in the U.S. and Canada from 1970 to 2020. Environ Sci Technol 49:1521–1528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguirre MA, Hidalgo M, Canals A, Nóbrega JA, Pereira-Filho ER (2013) Analysis of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and multivariate analysis. Talanta 117:419–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akcil A, Erust C, Gahana CS, Ozgun M, Sahin M, Tuncuk A (2015) Precious metal recovery from waste printed circuit boards using cyanide and non-cyanide lixiviants—a review. Waste Manag 45:258–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrade DF, Fortunato FM, Pereira-Filho ER (2019) Calibration strategies for determination of the In content in discarded liquid crystal displays (LCD) from mobile phones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Anal Chim Acta 1061:42–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews D, Raychaudhuri A, Frias C (2000) Environmentally sound technologies for recycling secondary lead. J Power Sources 88:124–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aquino FWB, Pereira-Filho ER (2015) Analysis of the polymeric fractions of scrap from mobile phones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: chemometric applications for better data interpretation. Talanta 134:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aquino FWB, Santos JM, Carvalho RRV, Coelho JAO, Pereira-Filho ER (2015) Obtaining information about valuable metals in computer and mobile phone scraps using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). RSC Adv 5:67001–67010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aquino FWB, Paranhos CM, Pereira-Filho ER (2016) Method for the production of acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC)/ABS standards for direct Sb determination in plastics from e-waste using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. J Anal At Spectrom 31:1228–1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baldé CP, Kuehr R, Blumenthal K, Gill SF, Kern M, Micheli P, Magpantay E, Huisman J (2015) E-waste statistics: Guidelines on classifications, reporting and indicators. United Nations University (UNU), IAS-SCYCLE, BonnGoogle Scholar
  10. Baldé CP, Forti V, Gray V, Kuehr R, Stegmann P (2017) The global e-waste monitor—2017. United Nations University (UNU), International Telecommunication Union (ITU) & International Solid Waste Association (ISWA), BonnGoogle Scholar
  11. Barontini F, Cozzani V (2006) Formation of hydrogen bromide and organobrominated compounds in the thermal degradation of electronic boards. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 77:41–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Batagelj V, Cerinsek M (2013) On bibliographic networks. Scientometrics 96:845–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bi X, Thomas GO, Jones KC, Qu W, Sheng G, Martin FL, Fu J (2007) Exposure of electronics dismantling workers to polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in South China. Environ Sci Technol 41:5647–56530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Börner K, Chen C, Boyack KW (2003) Visualizing knowledge domains. Annu Rev Inf Sci Technol 37:179–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boudry C, Baudouin C, Mouriaux F (2018) International publication trends in dry eye disease research: a bibliometric analysis. Ocul Surf 16:173–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Breivik K, Armitage JM, Wania F, Jones KC (2014) Tracking the global generation and exports of e-waste. Do existing estimates add up? Environ Sci Technol 48:8735–8743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carvalho RRV, Coelho JAO, Santos JM, Aquino FWB, Carneiro RL, Pereira-Filho ER (2015) Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) combined with hyperspectral imaging for the evaluation of printed circuit board composition. Talanta 134:278–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Castro JP, Pereira-Filho ER (2018) Spectroanalytical method for evaluating the technological elements composition of magnets from computer hard disks. Talanta 189:205–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen H, Yang Y, Zhou J (2014) Global trends of compost research from 1997 to 2012: a bibliometric analysis based on SCI database. Asian J Chem 26:5242–5248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chiu WT, Ho YS (2007) Bibliometric analysis of tsunami research. Scientometrics 73:3–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chuang KY, Huang YL, Ho YS (2007) A bibliometric and citation analysis of stroke-related research in Taiwan. Scientometrics 72:201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Costa VC, Aquino FWB, Paranhos CM, Pereira-Filho ER (2017a) Identification and classification of polymer e-waste using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and chemometric tools. Polym Test 59:390–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Costa VC, Aquino FWB, Paranhos CM, Pereira-Filho ER (2017b) Use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the determination of polycarbonate (PC) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) concentrations in PC/ABS plastics from e-waste. Waste Manag 70:212–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Costa VC, Castro JP, Andrade DF, Babos DV, Garcia JA, Sperança MA, Catelani TA, Pereira-Filho ER (2018) Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) applications in the chemical analysis of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Trends Anal Chem 108:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cucchiella F, D'Adamo I, Koh SCL, Rosa P (2015) Recycling of WEEEs: an economic assessment of present and future e-waste streams. Renew Sust Energ Rev 51:263–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cui JR, Forssberg E (2003) Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review. J Hazard Mater 99:243–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cui JR, Zhang LF (2008) Metallurgical recovery of metals from electronic waste: a review. J Hazard Mater 158:228–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dodson JR, Parker HL, García AM, Hicken A, Asemave K, Farmer TJ, He H, Clark JH, Hunt AJ (2015) Bio-derived materials as a green route for precious & critical metal recovery and re-use. Green Chem 17:1951–1965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Durmusoglu A (2016) A pre-assessment of past research on the topic of environmental-friendly electronics. J Clean Prod 129:305–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. EC (2011) Directive 2011/65/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2011 on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment (recast). European CommissionGoogle Scholar
  31. Electronics Take Back Coalition (2014) Facts and figures on e-waste and recycling. Accessed 11 February 2019
  32. Farzana R, Rajarao R, Hassan K, Behera PR, Sahajwalla V (2018) Thermal nanosizing: novel route to synthesize manganese oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles simultaneously from spent Zn–C battery. J Clean Prod 196:478–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fu J, Zhou Q, Liu J, Liu W, Wang T, Zhang Q, Jiang G (2008) High levels of heavy metals in rice (Oryza sativa L.) from a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential risk to human health. Chemosphere 71:1269–1275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fu H, Wang M, Ho Y (2013) Mapping of drinking water research: a bibliometric analysis of research output during 1992–2011. Sci Total Environ 443:757–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Garfield E (1972) Citation analysis as a tool in journal evaluation. Science 178:417–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Garfield E (1979) Is citation analysis a legitimate evaluation tool? Scientometrics 1:359–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garfield E (1990) KeyWords Plus takes you beyond title words. Part 2. Expanded journal coverage for current contents on diskette includes social and behavioral sciences. Curr Contents 33:5–9Google Scholar
  38. Garfield E (2006) Citation indexes for science A new dimension in documentation through association of ideas. Int J Epidemiol 35:1123–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Garfield E (2007) The evolution of the Science Citation Index. Int Microbiol 10:65–69Google Scholar
  40. Ghosh B, Ghosh MK, Parhi P, Mukherjee PS, Mishra BK (2015) Waste printed circuit boards recycling: an extensive assessment of current status. J Clean Prod 94:5–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Heacock M, Kelly CB, Asante KA, Birnbaum LS, Bergman AL, Bruné M, Buka I, Carpenter DO, Chen A, Huo X, Kamel M, Landrigan PJ, Magalini F, Diaz-Barriga F, Neira M, Omar M, Pascale A, Ruchirawat M, Sly L, Sly PD, Berg MV, Suk WA (2016) E-waste and harm to vulnerable populations: a growing global problem. Environ Health Perspect 124:550–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hirsch J (2005) An index to quantify an individuals scientific research output. Proc Natl Acad Sci 102:16569–16572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ho YS, Satoh H, Lin SY (2010) Japanese lung cancer research trends and performance in Science Citation Index. Intern Med 49:2219–2228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Huo X, Peng L, Xu X, Zheng L, Qiu B, Qi Z, Zhang B, Han D, Piao Z (2007) Elevated blood lead levels of children in Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling town in China. Environ Health Perspect 115:1113–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ikhlayel M (2018) An integrated approach to establish e-waste management systems for developing countries. J Clean Prod 170:119–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ilankoon IMSK, Ghorbani Y, Chong MN, Herath G, Moyo T, Petersen J (2018) E-waste in the international context—a review of trade flows, regulations, hazards, waste management strategies and technologies for value recovery. Waste Manag 82:258–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ilyas S, Lee JC, Chi RA (2013) Bioleaching of metals from electronic scrap and its potential for commercial exploitation. Hydrometallurgy 131–132:138–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ilyas S, Lee JC, Kim BS (2014) Bioremoval of heavy metals from recycling industry electronic waste by a consortium of moderate thermophiles: process development and optimization. J Clean Prod 70:194–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Innocenzi V, Michelis ID, Kopacek B, Vegliò F (2014) Yttrium recovery from primary and secondary sources: a review of main hydrometallurgical processes. Waste Manag 34:1237–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jiupeng MA, Hui-zhen FU, Yuh-shan HO (2012) The top-cited wetland articles in science citation index expanded: characteristics and hotspots. Environ Earth Sci 70:1039–1046Google Scholar
  51. Kaffine D, O’Reilly P (2013) What have we learned about extended producer responsibility in the past decade? A survey of the recent EPR economic literature. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Available at: Accessed 17 Sep 2018
  52. Kiddee P, Naidu R, Wong MH (2013) Electronic waste management approaches: an overview. Waste Manag 33:1237–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kumar A, Dixit G (2018) Evaluating critical barriers to implementation of WEEE management using DEMATEL approach. Resour Conserv Recycl 131:101–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Law RJ, Covaci A, Harrad S, Herzke D, Abdallah MAE, Femie K, Toms LML, Takigami H (2013) Levels and profiles of organochlorines and flame retardants in car and house dust from Kuwait and Pakistan: implication for human exposure via dust ingestion. Environ Int 55:55–62Google Scholar
  55. Law RJ, Covaci A, Harrad S, Herzke D, Abdallah MAE, Femie K, Toms LML, Takigami H (2014) Levels and trends of PBDEs and HBCDs in the global environment: Status at the end of 2012. Environ Int 65:147–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leung AOW, Luksemburg WJ, Wong AS, Wong MH (2007) Spatial distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil and combusted residue at Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site in southeast China. Environ Sci Technol 41:2730–2737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Li WL, Ma WL, Zhang ZF, Liu LY, Song WW, Jia HL, Ding YS, Nakata H, Minh NH, Sinha RK, Moon HB, Kannan K, Sverko E, Li YF (2017a) Occurrence and source effect of novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) in Soils from five Asian countries and their relationship with PBDEs. Environ Sci Technol 51:11126–11135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Li Y, Wu X, Song J, Li J, Shao Q, Cao N, Lu N, Guo Z (2017b) Reparation of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene by pyromellitic dianhydride: reparation performance evaluation and property analysis. Polymer 124:41–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Li K, Rollins J, Yan E (2018) Web of science use in published research and review papers 1997–2017: a selective, dynamic, cross-domain, content-based analysis. Scientometrics 115:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lundgren K (2012) The global impact of e-waste: addressing the challenge. International Labour Organization, Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment (SafeWork), Sectoral Activities Department (SECTOR), GenevaGoogle Scholar
  61. Luo J, Cai L, Qi S, Wu J, Gu XWS (2017a) A multi-technique phytoremediation approach to purify metals contaminated soil from e-waste recycling site. J Environ Manag 204:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Luo J, Cai L, Qi S, Wu J, Gu XWS (2017b) Improvement effects of cytokinin on EDTA assisted phytoremediation and the associated environmental risks. Chemosphere 185:386–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mallampati SR, Lee BH, Mitoma Y, Simion C (2017) Selective sequential separation of ABS/HIPS and PVC from automobile and electronic waste shredder residue by hybrid nano-Fe/Ca/CaO assisted ozonisation process. Waste Manag 60:428–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Maroufi S, Nekouei RK, Sahajwalla V (2018) A green route to synthesize Pr3+/Dy3+-doped Nd2O3 nanoreplicas from Nd–Fe–B magnets. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 6:3402–3410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Marques AC, Cabrera JM, Malfatti CF (2013) Printed circuit boards: a review on the perspective of sustainability. J Environ Manag 131:298–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Martin MZ, Fox RV, Miziolek AW, DeLucia FC, André N (2015) Spectral analysis of rare earth elements using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy next-generation spectroscopic technologies VIII series of books: proceedings of SPIE Vol 9482Google Scholar
  67. Milanez DH, Schiavi MT, Amaral RM, Faria LIL, Gregolin JAR (2013) Development of carbon-based nanomaterials indicators using the analytical tools and data provided by the web of science database. Mater Res 16:1282–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mnim Altwaiq A, Wolf M, Van Eldik R (2003) Extraction of brominated flame retardants from polymeric waste material using different solvents and supercritical carbon dioxide. Anal Chim Acta 491:111–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nekouei RK, Pahlevani F, Rajarao R, Golmohammadzadeh R, Sahajwalla V (2018) Direct transformation of waste printed circuit boards to nano-structured powders through mechanical alloying. Mater Des 141:26–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Neto GCO, Correia AJC, Schroeder AM (2017) Economic and environmental assessment of recycling and reuse of electronic waste: Multiple case studies in Brazil and Switzerland. Resour Conserv Recycl 127:29–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Noyons E, Moed H, Luwel M (1999) Combining mapping and citation analysis for evaluative bibliometric purposes: a bibliometric study. J Am Soc Inf Sci 50:115–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. OECD (2016) Extended producer responsibility: updated guidance for efficient waste management. OECD publishing, Paris. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Okubo Y (1997) Bibliometric indicators and analysis of research systems: methods and examples. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 1997/01. OECD Publishing, ParisGoogle Scholar
  74. Ongondo FO, Williams ID, Cherrett TJ (2011) How are WEEE doing? A global review of the management of electrical and electronic wastes. Waste Manag 31:714–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pohlein M, Bertran RU, Wolf M, Van Eldik R (2009) Preparation of reference materials for the determination of RoHS-relevant flame retardants in styrenic polymers. Anal Bioanal Chem 394:583–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rajarao R, Ferreira R, Sadi SHF, Khanna R, Sahajwalla V (2014) Synthesis of silicon carbide nanoparticles by using electronic waste as a carbon source. Mater Lett 120:65–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Robinson BH (2009) E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts. Sci Total Environ 408:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Romanelli JP, Fujimoto JT, Ferreira MD, Milanez DH (2018) Assessing ecological restoration as a research topic using bibliometric indicators. Ecol Eng 120:311–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Roth T, Bertran RU, Latza A, Andörfer-Lang K, Hügelschäffer C, Pöhlein M, Puchta R, Placht C, Maid H, Bauer W, Van Eldik R (2015) Preparation of candidate reference materials for the determination of phosphorus containing flame retardants in styrene-based polymers. Anal Bioanal Chem 407:3023–3034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schlummer M (2014) Recycling of postindustrial and postconsumer plastics containing flame retardants. Polym Green Flame Retard 25:869–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sommer EJ, Rich JT (2001) Application of Raman spectroscopy to identification and sorting of post-consumer plastics for recycling. U.S. Patent 6313423Google Scholar
  82. Song QB, Li JH (2014) A systematic review of the human body burden of e-waste exposure in China. Environ Int 68:82–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sperança MA, Virgilio A, Pereira-Filho ER, Aquino FWB (2018) Determination of elemental content in solder mask samples used in printed circuit boards using different spectroanalytical techniques. Appl Spectrosc 72:1205–1214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Stepputat M, Noll R (2003) On-line detection of heavy metals and brominated flame retardants in technical polymers with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry. Appl Opt 42:6210–6220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sthiannopkao S, Wong MH (2013) Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: initiatives, practices, and consequences. Sci Total Environ 463–464:1147–1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stindt D, Sahamie R (2014) Review of research on closed loop supply chain management in the process industry. Flex Serv Manuf J 26:268–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ştirbu S, Thirion P, Schmitz S, Haesbroeck G, Greco N (2015) The utility of Google Scholar when searching geographical literature: comparison with three commercial bibliographic databases. J Acad Librariansh 41:322–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tokumaru T, Ozaki H, Onwona-Agyeman S, Ofosu-Anim J, Watanabe I (2017) Determination of the extent of trace metals pollution in soils, sediments and human hair at e-waste recycling site in Ghana. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 73:377–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Truc NTT, Lee BK (2017) Selective separation of ABS/PC containing BFRs from ABSs mixture of WEEE by developing hydrophilicity with ZnO coating under microwave treatment. J Hazard Mater 329:84–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tue NM, Goto A, Takahashi S, Itai T, Asante KA, Nomiyama K, Tanabe S, Kunisue T (2017) Soil contamination by halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from open burning of e-waste in Agbogbloshie (Accra, Ghana). J Mater Cycles Waste Manage 19:1324–1332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tuncuka A, Stazib V, Akcila A, Yazicic EY, Devecic H (2012) Aqueous metal recovery techniques from e-scrap: hydrometallurgy in recycling. Miner Eng 25:28–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. US EPA (2016) Electronic products generation and recycling in the United States, 2013, 2014. Accessed 11 February 2019
  93. Van Eck NJ, Waltman L (2010) Software survey: VOSviewer, a computer program for bibliometric mapping. Scientometrics 84:523–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Venkatesan P, Hoogerstraete TV, Hennebel T, Binnemans K, Sietsma J, Yang Y (2018) Selective electrochemical extraction of REEs from NdFeB magnet waste at room temperature. Green Chem 20:1065–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wang LL, Hou ML, An J, Zhong YF, Wang XT, Wang YJ, Wu MH, Bi XH, Sheng GY, Fu JM (2011) The cytotoxic and genetoxic effects of dust and soil samples from e-waste recycling area on L02 cells. Toxicol Ind Health 27:831–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wang C, Wang H, Liu Q, Fu J, Liu Y (2014) Separation of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene waste plastics by froth flotation combined with ammonia pretreatment. Waste Manag 34:2656–2661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Widmer R, Oswald-Krapf H, Sinha-Khetriwal D, Schnellmann M, Boni H (2005) Global perspectives on e-waste. Environ Impact Assess 25:436–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wilford BH, Shoeib M, Harner T, Zhu JP, Jones KC (2005) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor dust in Ottawa, Canada: implications for sources and exposure. Environ Sci Technol 39:7027–7035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wold S (1991) Chemometrics, why, what and where to next? J Pharm Biomed Anal 9:589–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wong MH, Wu SC, Deng WJ, Yu XZ, Luo Q, Leung AOW, Wong CSC, Luksemburg WJ, Wong AS (2007) Export of toxic chemicals—a review of the case of uncontrolled electronic-waste recycling. Environ Pollut 149:131–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Xia MC, Wang YP, Peng TJ, Shen L, Yu RL, Liu YD, Chen M, Li JK, Wu XL, Zeng WM (2017) Recycling of metals from pretreated waste printed circuit boards effectively in stirred tank reactor by a moderately thermophilic culture. J Biosci Bioeng 123:714–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Yamasue E, Nakajima K, Daigo I, Hashimoto S, Okumura H, Ishihara KN (2007) Evaluation of the potential amounts of dissipated rare metals from WEEE in Japan. Mater Trans 48:2353–2357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zhang L, Wang M, Hu J, Ho Y (2010) A review of published wetland research, 1991–2008: ecological engineering and ecosystem restoration. Ecol Eng 36:973–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zhang Q, Ye J, Chen J, Xu H, Wang C, Zhao M (2014) Risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals in soils of an abandoned e-waste site in China. Environ Pollut 185:258–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zhang S, Ding Y, Liu B, Chang C (2017) Supply and demand of some critical metals and present status of their recycling in WEEE. Waste Manag 65:113–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zhi W, Ji G (2012) Constructed wetlands, 1991–2011: a review of research development, current trends, and future directions. Sci Total Environ 441:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zupic I, Cater T (2015) Bibliometric methods in management and organization. Organ Res Methods 18:429–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Group of Applied Instrumental Analysis, Department of ChemistryFederal University of São CarlosSão CarlosBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Environmental SciencesFederal University of São CarlosSão CarlosBrazil

Personalised recommendations