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Toxicological potential of cobalt in forage for ruminants grown in polluted soil: a health risk assessment from trace metal pollution for livestock

  • Zafar Iqbal KhanEmail author
  • Nimra Arshad
  • Kafeel Ahmad
  • Muhammad Nadeem
  • Asma Ashfaq
  • Kinza Wajid
  • Humayun Bashir
  • Mudasra Munir
  • Bushra Huma
  • Hafsa Memoona
  • Madiha Sana
  • Khalid Nawaz
  • Muhammad Sher
  • Taswar Abbas
  • Ilker Ugulu
Research Article
  • 18 Downloads

Abstract

The trace metal pollution in the environment is a highly concerned issue in these days. One of the important causes of trace metal pollution is the exhaust gases released from the vehicles on the roads. These dangerous gases pose life-threatening effects on the forage plants grown along the roadside as these plants are at direct risk to these trace metals. The aims of the present study were to determine the cobalt (Co) concentrations in soil, forages, and blood plasma of the buffaloes and to evaluate the Co deficiencies and toxicities in these samples. All samples were collected from six sites (Faisalabad roadside, Bhalwal roadside, Shaheenabad roadside, Mateela roadside, 50 Chak roadside, and Dera Saudi-control) of Sargodha city. The Co concentrations in these samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-6300 Shimadzu Japan). In soil samples, Co level ranged from 1.958 to 3.457 mg/kg in the six sampling sites. The highest Co level was observed at site 6 and the lowest at site 2. In forage samples, Co level ranged from 0.770 to 2.309 mg/kg in the six sampling sites. The highest Co level was observed at site 3 and the lowest at site 2. In blood plasma samples, Co level ranged from 2.644 to 4.927 mg/kg in the six sampling sites. The highest Co level was observed at site 1 and the lowest at site 3. The results showed higher Co values in the samples collected from the site IV while the bioconcentration factor for forage-soil was found highest in the samples collected from Site III. On the other hand, a correlation was found positively significant when soil and forage were correlated, and it was found negatively significant when blood and forage were correlated.

Keywords

Contamination Soil Forage Blood Biomonitoring 

Notes

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zafar Iqbal Khan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nimra Arshad
    • 1
  • Kafeel Ahmad
    • 1
  • Muhammad Nadeem
    • 2
  • Asma Ashfaq
    • 1
  • Kinza Wajid
    • 1
  • Humayun Bashir
    • 1
  • Mudasra Munir
    • 1
  • Bushra Huma
    • 1
  • Hafsa Memoona
    • 3
  • Madiha Sana
    • 3
  • Khalid Nawaz
    • 4
  • Muhammad Sher
    • 5
  • Taswar Abbas
    • 6
  • Ilker Ugulu
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of SargodhaSargodhaPakistan
  2. 2.Institute of Food Science and NutritionUniversity of SargodhaSargodhaPakistan
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyLahore College for Women UniversityLahorePakistan
  4. 4.Department of BotanyUniversity of GujratGujratPakistan
  5. 5.Department of ChemistryUniversity of SargodhaSargodhaPakistan
  6. 6.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of SargodhaSargodhaPakistan
  7. 7.Buca Faculty of EducationDokuz Eylul UniversityIzmirTurkey

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