Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 13, pp 13580–13591 | Cite as

Linking nano-ZnO contamination to microbial community profiling in sanitary landfill simulations

  • Çağrı AkyolEmail author
  • Emine Gozde Ozbayram
  • Burak Demirel
  • Turgut Tüzün Onay
  • Orhan Ince
  • Bahar Ince
Research Article


Nanomaterials (NMs) commercially used for various activities mostly end up in landfills. Reduced biogas productions reported in landfill reactors create a need for more comprehensive research on these greatly-diverse microbial pools. In order to evaluate the impact of one of the most widely-used NMs, namely nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO), simulated bioreactor and conventional landfills were operated using real municipal solid waste (MSW) for 300 days with addition nano-ZnO. Leachate samples were taken at different phases and analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The bacterial communities were distinctly characterized by Cloacamonaceae (phylum WWE1), Rhodocyclaceae (phylum Proteobacteria), Porphyromonadaceae (phylum Bacteroidetes), and Synergistaceae (phylum Synergistetes). The bacterial community in the bioreactors shifted at the end of the operation and was dominated by Rhodocyclaceae. There was not a major change in the bacterial community in the conventional reactors. The methanogenic archaeal diversity highly differed between the bioreactors and conventional reactors. The dominance of Methanomicrobiaceae was observed in the bioreactors during the peak methane-production period; however, their prominence shifted to WSA2 in the nano-ZnO-added bioreactor and to Methanocorpusculaceae in the control bioreactor towards the end. Methanocorpusculaceae was the most abundant family in both conventional control and nano-ZnO-containing reactors.


Anaerobic microbiome Leachate Nano-ZnO Metagenomics Sanitary landfill 



We thank İlknur Temizel for sample collection and preservation.

Funding information

This work was funded by Boğaziçi University Research Fund Project (project no. 13081) and TUBITAK (project no. 112Y322).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_4906_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (430 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 429 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Environmental SciencesBoğaziçi UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil EngineeringIstanbul Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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