Target and non-target botanical pesticides effect of Trichodesma indicum (Linn) R. Br. and their chemical derivatives against the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L.
The effects of crude ethanol derived leaf extract Trichodesma indicum (Linn) (Ex-Ti) and their chief derivatives were accessed on the survival and development of the dengue mosquito Ae. aegypti also their non-toxic activity against mosquito predator. T. indicum is recognized to be the vital weed plant and a promising herb in the traditional ayurvedic medicine. In this study, the GC-MS chromatogram of Ex-Ti showed higher peak area percentage for cis-10-Heptadecenoic acid (21.83%) followed by cycloheptadecanone (14.32%). The Ex-Ti displayed predominant mortality in larvae with 96.45 and 93.31% at the prominent dosage (200 ppm) against III and IV instar. Correspondingly, sub-lethal dosage against the enzymatic profile of III and IV instar showed downregulation of α,β-carboxylesterase and SOD protein profiles at the maximum concentration of 100 ppm. However, enzyme level of GST as well as CYP450 increased significantly dependent on sub-lethal concentration. Likewise, fecundity and hatchability of egg rate of dengue mosquito decreased to the sub-lethal concentration of Ex-Ti. Repellent assay illustrates that Ex-Ti concentration had greater protection time up to 210 min at 100 ppm. Also, activity of Ex-Ti on adult mosquito displayed 100% mortality at the maximum dosage of 600, 500 and 400 ppm within the period of 50, 60 and 70 min, respectively. Photomicrography screening showed that lethal dosage of Ex-Ti (100 ppm) produced severe morphological changes with dysregulation in their body parts as matched to the control. Effects of Ex-Ti on the Toxorhynchites splendens IV instar larvae showed less mortality (43.47%) even at the maximum dosage of 1500 ppm as matched to the chemical pesticide Temephos. Overall, the present research adds a toxicological valuation on the Ex-Ti and their active constituents as a larvicidal, repellent and adulticidal agents against the global burdening dengue mosquito.
KeywordsIndian borage Dengue vector Enzyme SOD CYP450 Temephos Non-target
Author MC was supported by the Department of Science and Technology, Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Government of India (File No. PDF/2016/001185).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Agra-Neto AC, Napoleão TH, Pontual EV, Santos NDL, Luz LA, Oliveira CMF, Melo-Santos MAV, Coelho LCBB, Navarro DMAF, Paiva PMG (2015) Effect of Moringa oleifera lectins on survival and enzyme activities of Aedes aegypti larvae susceptible and resistant to organophosphate. Parasitol Res 113:175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bhattacharyya A, Prasad R, Buhroo AA, Duraisamy P, Yousuf I, Umadevi M, Bindhu MR, Govindarajan M, Khanday AL (2016) One-pot fabrication and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Solanum lycopersicum: an eco-friendly and potent control tool against rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosae. J Nanoscience, 7 https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4679410
- Chellappandian M, Thanigaivel A, Vasantha-Srinivasan P, Edwin E, Ponsankar A, Selin-Rani S, Kalaivani K, Senthil-Nathan S, Benelli G (2017) Toxicological effects of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) leaf essential oil against human disease vectors, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti Linn. and impacts on a beneficial mosquito predator. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 11:10294–10306Google Scholar
- Deming R, Manrique-Saide P, Barreiro AM, Cardena EUK, Che-Mendoza A, Jones B, Leibman K, Vizcaino L, Vazquez-Prokopec G, Lenhart A (2016) Spatial variation of insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti presents unique vector control challenges. Parasit Vectors 9:67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Diniz DFA, de Melo-Santos MAV, de Mendonca Santos EA, Beserra EB, Helvecio E, de Carvalho-Leandro D, dos Santos BS, de Menezes Lima VL, Ayres CVJ (2015) Fitness cost in field and laboratory Aedes aegypti populations associated with resistance to the insecticide Temephos. Parasit Vectors 8:662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Edwin E, Vasantha-Srinivasan P, Senthil-Nathan S, Thanigaivel A, Ponsankar A, Pradeepa V, Selin-Rani S, Kalaivani K, Hunter WB, Abdel-Megeed A, Duraipandiyan V, Al-Dhabi NA (2016) Anti-dengue efficacy of bioactive andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata (Lamiales: Acanthaceae) against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Acta Trop 163:167–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M, Hoti SL, Benelli G (2016b) Larvicidal potential of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol from the essential oil of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae). Res Veterinary Sci 104:77–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kalaivani K, Maruthi-Kalaiselvi M, Senthil-Nathan S (2016) Effect of methyl salicylate (MeSA), an elicitor on growth, physiology and pathology of resistant and susceptible rice varieties. Nature Sci Rep 6:34498Google Scholar
- Larson RT, Lorch JM, Pridgeon JW, Becnel JJ, Clark GG (2010) The biological activity of α-Mangostin, a larvicidalotanic mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor. J Med Entomol 47(2):249–257Google Scholar
- Pisa LW, Amaral-Rogers V, Belzunces LP, Bonmatin JM, Downs CA, Goulson D, Kreutzweiser DP, Krupke C, Liess M, McField M, Morrissey CA, Noome DA, Settele J, Simon-Delso N, Stark JD, van der Sluijs JP, van Dyck H, Wiemers M (2015) Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:68–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ponsankar A, Vasantha-Srinivasan P, Senthil-Nathan S, Thanigaivel A, Edwin E et al (2016) Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroptia guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura fab. And an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 133:260–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Selin-Rani S, Senthil-Nathan S, Revathi K, Chandrasekaran R, Thanigaivel A, Vasantha-Srinivasan P, Ponsankar A, Edwin E, Pradeepa V (2016) Toxicity of Alangium salvifolium Wang chemical constituents against the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura Fab. Pest Biochem Physiol 126:92–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Senthil-Nathan S (2015) A review of bio pesticides and their mode of action against insect pests. In: Environmental sustainability—role of green technologies. Springer-Verlag, pp 49–63Google Scholar
- Senthil-Nathan S, Choi MY, Paik CH, Seo HY (2007) Food consumption, utilization, and detoxification enzyme activity of the rice leaffolder larvae after treatment with Dysoxylum triterpenes. Pest. Biochem Physiol 88:260–267Google Scholar
- Somboon P, Prapanthadara L, Suwonkerd W (2003) Insecticide susceptibility tests of Anopheles minimuss.L., Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus in northern Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 34:87–93Google Scholar
- Stenrod M, Almvik M, Eklo OM, Gimsing AL, Holten R, Künnis-Beres K, Larsbo M, Putlies L, Siimes K, Turka I, Uusi-Kämppä J (2016) Pesticide regulatory risk assessment, monitoring, and fate studies in the northern zone: recommendations from a Nordic-Baltic workshop. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:15779–15788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thanigaivel A, Chandrasekaran R, Revathi K, Nisha S, Sathish-Narayanan S, Kirubakaran SA, Senthil-Nathan S (2012) Larvicidal efficacy of Adhatoda vasica (L.) Nees against the Bancroftian filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say and dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. in in vitro condition. Parasitol Res 110:1993–1999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thanigaivel A, Senthil-Nathan S, Vasantha-Srinivasan P, Edwin E, Ponsankar A, Selin-Rani S, Pradeepa V, Chellappandian M, Kalaivani K, Abdel-Megeed A, Narayanan R, Murugan K (2017b) Chemicals isolated from Justicia adhatoda Linn reduce fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 00:e21384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thanigaivel A, Vasantha-Srinivasan P, Senthil-Nathan S, Edwin E, Ponsankar A, Chellappandian M, Selin-Rani S, Lija-Escaline J, Kalaivani K (2017a) Impact of Terminalia chebula Retz. against Aedes aegypti L. and non-target aquatic predatory insects. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 137:210–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vasantha-Srinivasan P, Senthil-Nathan S, Ponsankar A, Thanigaivel A, Edwin E, Selin-Rani S, Chellappandian M, Pradeepa V, Lija-Escaline J, Kalaivani K (2017b) Comparative analysis of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedes aegypti Liston) responses to the insecticide Temephos and plant derived essential oil derived from Piper betle L. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 139:439–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vasantha-Srinivasan P, Thanigaivel A, Edwin E, Ponsankar A, Senthil-Nathan S, Selin-Rani S, Kalaivani K, Hunter WB, Duraipandiyan V, Al-Dhabi NA (2017a) Toxicological effects of chemical constituents from Piper against the environmental burden Aedes aegypti Liston and their impact on non-target toxicity evaluation against biomonitoring aquatic insects. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 139:439–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization (2009) Guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skins, WHO. Gevena 4–18(WHO/CDS/NTD/WHOPES/2009.4)Google Scholar