Ecotoxicological biomarkers as investigating tools to evaluate the impact of acrylamide on Theba pisana snails

  • Mohamed A. RadwanEmail author
  • Kawther S. El-Gendy
  • Amira F. Gad
  • Awatef E. Khamis
  • El-Sayed H. Eshra
Research Article


Acrylamide (ACR) is a widespread industrial chemical with recognized adverse effects not only to humans but to other organisms in the environment as well. In the present study, the ecotoxicological effects of dietary exposure to sublethal concentration (1/20 LC50) of ACR on the land snail, Theba pisana after 2 weeks of exposure and 1-week recovery with respect to oxidative stress parameters; lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), cytogenetic parameter; deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content, as well as immunological parameters; cell death, phagocytosis, lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), lectins, superoxide anion (O2) generation, phenoloxidase (PO), peroxidase (POD), and hemocyanin (Hc) were examined. The results showed that ACR significantly increased LPO level and the activity of CAT and GST, cell death, and Hc level, whereas a significant decline in DNA and GSH contents, phagocytic activity, LMS, lectins, O2 generation, POD, and PO activities compared to the controls after 2-week exposure was observed. After 1-week recovery, most of the tested parameters in exposed snails were permanent and not reversible to the control levels. This study suggests that the tested multiple parameters of T. pisana species may be used as biomarkers of ACR exposure. Besides, T. pisana snails could be used as a good sentinel organism for ACR exposure in pollution monitoring studies.


Acrylamide Land snails Oxidative stress Genotoxicity Immunotoxicity Biomarkers 



The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Compliance with ethical standard

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed A. Radwan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kawther S. El-Gendy
    • 1
  • Amira F. Gad
    • 2
  • Awatef E. Khamis
    • 1
  • El-Sayed H. Eshra
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pesticide Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Pesticide Chemistry and TechnologyAlexandria UniversityAlexandriaEgypt
  2. 2.Plant Protection Research Institute, Agriculture Research CenterAlexandriaEgypt

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