Enhanced degradation of sulfamethoxazole by Fe–Mn binary oxide synergetic mediated radical reactions
In this study, a novel Fe–Mn binary oxide (FMBO), which combined the oxidation capability of iron and manganese oxides, was constructed to remove sulfamethoxazole (SMX) effectively using the simultaneous co-precipitation and oxidation methods, and the reaction products were probed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Particularly, FMBO-mediated transformation mechanisms of SMX were explored using radical scavengers and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Results indicated that the best removal efficiency was obtained at a pH of 4.0, with the H2O2 of 6.0 mmol/L and the FMBO dosage of 2.0 g/L, giving 97.6% removal of 10 mg/L SMX within 60 min. More importantly, we found that the hydroxyl (•OH) radicals generated by FMBO through Fenton-like reaction were responsible for the SMX oxidation. EPR studies were confirmed that the peak intensities of hydroxyl adduct decreased remarkably with increasing pH values. Moreover, the four SMX degradation intermediate products were detected by LC/MS and a reaction pathway for the possible mineralization of SMX, with •OH radicals as the main oxidant, was proposed. These findings provide a novel insight into the removal of SMX by FMBO-mediated radical reactions in aquatic environments. Moreover, this research suggested that FMBO can act as an efficient catalyst to remove SMX in hospital wastewater.
KeywordsSulfamethoxazole Fenton-like reaction Fe–Mn binary oxide Radical mechanism
This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant number 41471405].
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