The impact of urban pollution on metal contamination of selected forest pockets in Cape Town, South Africa

  • Anne-Liese KrügerEmail author
  • Reinette Snyman
  • James Odendaal
Research Article


Urban forests are exposed to metals, such as manganese, copper, and zinc in the atmosphere that originate from anthropogenic activities, that include vehicle-related traffic, industries, construction sites, fossil fuel burning for heating and cooking purposes, and resuspension processes related to urban surfaces. Not only is the rich biodiversity of plant and animal species in forests under threat, but so are the biodiversity of soil, sustaining ecosystem functions, as well as human health. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the concentrations of manganese, copper, and zinc arising from urban, industrial, and traffic-related pollution in the remote and/or untouched urban indigenous forests using soil, leaf litter, and key forest organisms (mosses, lichens, and millipedes) in three forests (Platbos, Orange Kloof, and Newlands) in the Western Cape, South Africa. Elevated concentrations of these metals were found in the forests closest to the city, as well as at sites in close proximity of vehicle traffic.


Metal: Forest Metals Urban pollution Brown haze Sentinel organisms Soil Leaf litter Invertebrates 



We also wish to thank the following organizations and people for granting permits, analysis of samples and identification of the sentinel organisms: Deborah Jean Winterton (SANParks), Francois and Melissa Krige (Platbos forest), Riana Rossouw (ICP laboratory, University of Stellenbosch), Bemlab, Professor Terry Hedderson (University of Cape Town), Dr. Andre Aptroot (ABL Herbarium, Netherlands), and Michelle Hamer (SANBI).

Funding information

We wish to thank the Cape Peninsula University of Technology for funding.


  1. Abdul-Wahab SA, Yaghi B (2004) Total suspended dust and heavy metal levels emitted from a workplace compared with nearby residential houses. Atmos Environ 38:745–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aboal JR, Couto C, Fernández JA, Carballeira A (2006) Definition and number of subsamples for using mosses as biomonitors of airborne trace elements. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 50:88–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adachia K, Tainoshob Y (2004) Characterization of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust. Environ Int 30:1009–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alloway BJ (1990) Soil processes and the behaviour of metals. In: Alloway BJ (ed) Heavy metals in soils. Blackie and Son Ltd., GlasgowGoogle Scholar
  5. Amato F, Cassee FR, Denier van der Gon HA, Gehrig R, Gustafsson M, Hafner W, Harrison RM, Jozwicka M, Kelly FJ, Moreno T (2014) Urban air quality: the challenge of traffic non-exhaust emissions. J Hazard Mater 275:31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson JM, Bignell DE (1982) Assimilation of 14C-labelled leaf fibre by the millipede Glomeris marginata (Diplopoda: Glomeridae). Pedobiologia 23:120–125Google Scholar
  7. Apeagyei E, Bank MS, Spengler JD (2011) Distribution of heavy metals in road dust along an urban-rural gradient in Massachusetts. Atmos Environ 45:2310–2323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Armstrong R, Bradwell T (2010) Growth of crustose lichens: a review. Geogr Ann Ser B 92(1):3–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ATSDR (2004) Interaction profiles for toxic substances. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Atlanta, GA. Accessed 3 September 2015
  10. Auerbach NA, Walker MD, Walker DA (1997) Effects of roadside disturbance on substrate and vegetation properties in arctic tundra. Ecol Appl 7:218–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Avila A, Rodrigo A (2004) Trace metal fluxes in bulk deposition, throughfall and stemflow at two evergreen oak stands in NE Spain subject to different exposure to the industrial environment. Atmos Environ 38:171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Aznar JC, Richer-Lafleche M, Begin C, Rodriguez R (2008) Spatiotemporal reconstruction of lead contamination using tree rings and organic soil layers. Sci Total Environ 407:233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bargagli R, Nimis PL (2002) Guidelines for the use of epiphytic lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of trace elements. NATO Sci Ser IV 7:295–299Google Scholar
  14. Bengtsson G (1986) The optimal use of life strategies in transitional zones or the optimal use of transition zones to describe life strategies. In: Velthuis HHW (ed) Proceedings of the Third European Congress of Entomology. Nederlandse Entomologische Vereiniging, Amsterdam, pp 193–207Google Scholar
  15. Boquete MT, Aboal JR, Carballeira A, Fernandez JA (2014) Effect of age on the heavy metal concentration in segments of Pseudoscleropodium purum and the biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition of metals. Atmos Environ 86:28–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Breure A, De Deyn G, Dominati E, Eglin T, Hedlund K, Van Orshoven J, Posthuma L (2012) Ecosystem services: a useful concept for soil policy making! Curr Opin Environ Sustain 4:578–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown SG, Frankel A, Raffuse SM, Roberts PT, Hafner HR, Anderson DJ (2007) Source apportionment of fine particulate matter in Phoenix, AZ, using positive matrix factorization. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 57:741–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Budai P, Clement A (2011) Refinement of national-scale heavy metal load estimations in road runoff based on field measurements. Transp Res Part D 16(3):244–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Businessday (2017) City of Cape Town to introduce flexi-time to reduce traffic congestion. Accessed 15 August 2017
  20. Cheng Z, Wang S, Jiang J, Fu Q, Chen C, Xu B, Yu J, Fu X, Hao J (2013) Long-term trend of haze pollution and impact of particulate matter in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Environ Pollut 182:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Christoforidis A, Stamatis N (2009) Heavy metal contamination in street dust and roadside soil along the major national road in Kavala’s region, Greece. Geoderma 151:257–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. CMA (2015) State of the environment report for the CMA. Cape Metropolitan Area Accessed 1 May 2017
  23. COM 231 (2006) 23, Communication from the commission to the council, The European Parliament, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. European Commission Bruxelles. Them Strat Soil Prot. SEC 620, SEC 1165, p 12Google Scholar
  24. Conti ME (2002) Il biological monitoring of environmental quality. SEAM Editions, Rome, p 180Google Scholar
  25. Da Silva Souza T, Christofoletti CA, Bozzatto V, Fontanetti CS (2014) The use of diplopods in soil ecotoxicology—a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 103:68–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Villiers C, Driver A, Brownlie S, Day E, Euston-Brown D, Helme N, Holmes P, Job N, Rebelo A (2005) Fynbos forum ecosystem guidelines for environmental assessment in the Western cape. Fynbos Forum Bot Soc S A. Conservation Unit, Kirstenbosch, Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  27. Desaules A, Hammann M, Weisskopf M (2001) Commentary on the ordinance of 1 July 1998 relating to impacts on the soil (OIS). Swiss Agen Environ Forest Landsc, BerneGoogle Scholar
  28. Driscoll CT, Han Y, Chen CY, Evers DC, Lambert KF, Holsen TM, Kamman NC, Munson RK (2007) Mercury contamination in forest and freshwater ecosystems in the north eastern United States. BioScience 57:17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Duong TTT, Lee B-K (2011) Determining contamination level of heavy metals in road dust from busy traffic areas with different characteristics. J Environ Manag 92:554–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Enviropaedia (2011) The Enviropaedia. Eco-Logic Publishing CC, SimonstownGoogle Scholar
  31. EU (European commission catalogue) (2010) The factory of life – why soil biodiversity is so important. ISBN 978-92-79-14998-6, 2010. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  32. Fernandez JA, Aboal JR, Couto JA, Carballeira A (2002) Sampling optimization at the sampling-site scale for monitoring atmospheric deposition using moss chemistry. Atmos Environ 36:1163–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gandois L, Probst A (2012) Localisation and mobility of trace metal in silver fir needles. Chemos 87:204–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gandois L, Tipping E, Dumat C, Probst A (2010) Canopy influence on trace metal atmospheric inputs on forest ecosystems: speciation in throughfall. Atmos Environ 44:824–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gandois L, Agnan Y, Leblond S, Séjalon-Delmas N, Le Roux G, Probst A (2014) Use of geochemical signatures, including rare earth elements, in mosses and lichens to assess spatial integration and the influence of forest environment. Atmos Environ 95:96–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gardi C, Jeffery S, Saltelli A (2013) An estimate of potential threats levels to soil biodiversity in EU. Glob Chang Biol 19:1538–1548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Greene CS, Millward AA (2017) Getting closure: the role of urban forest canopy density in moderating summer surface temperatures in a large city. Urban Ecosyst 20:141–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Greensdale P (2007) The potential of Collembolla to act as indicators of landscape stress in Australia. ISSN 18360939. Aust J Experi Agric 47:424–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gunawardena J, Egodawatta P, Ayoko GA, Goonetilleke A (2013) Atmospheric deposition as a source of heavy metals in urban stormwater. Atmos Environ 68:235–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Harmens H, Norris DA, Sharps K, Mills G, Alber R, Aleksiayenak Y, Blum O, Cucu-Man SM, Dam M, de Temmerman L, Ene A, Fernández JA, Martinez-Abaigar J, Frontasyeva M, Godzik B, Jeran Z, Lazo P, Leblond S, Liiv S, Magnússon SH, Maňkovská B, Karlsson GP, Piispanen J, Poikolainen J, Santamaria JM, Skudnik M, Spiric Z, Stafilov T, Steinnes E, Stihi C, Suchara I, Thöni L, Todoran R, Yurukova L, Zechmeister HG (2015) Heavy metal and nitrogen concentrations in mosses are declining across Europe whilst some “hotspots” remain in 2010. Environ Pollut 200:93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Herndon EM, Jin L, Brantley SL (2011) Soils reveal widespread manganese enrichment from industrial inputs. Environ Sci Technol 45:241–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Herndon EM, Jin L, Andrews DM, Eissenstat DM, Brantley SL (2015) Importance of vegetation for manganese cycling in temperate forested watersheds. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 29:160–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hobbelen PHF, Koolhaas JE, Van Gestel CAM (2004) Risk assessment of heavy metal pollution for detritivores in floodplain soils in the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, taking bioavailability into account. Environ Pollut 129:409–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hopkin SP (1989) Ecophysiology of metals in terrestrial invertebrates. Elsevier Applied Sci, London and New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Hristovskia S, Bergb B, Melovskia L (2014) Limitless decomposition in leaf litter of common beech: patterns, nutrients’ and heavy metal’s dynamics. Pedobiol 57:131–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Huber S, Prokop G, Arrouays D, Banko G, Bispo A, Jones RJA, Kibblewhite MG, Lexer W, Möller A, Rickson RJ, Shishkov T, Stephens M, Toth G, Van den Akker JJH, Varallyay G, Verheijen FGA, Jones AR (eds) (2008) Indicators and Criteria report. ENVASSO Project 154 (Contract 022713) coordinated by Cranfield University, UK, for Scientific Support to Policy. European Commission 6th Framework Research ProgrammeGoogle Scholar
  47. Huber M, Welker A, Helmreich B (2016) Critical review of heavy metal pollution of traffic area runoff: occurrence, influencing factors, and partitioning. Sci Total Environ 541:895–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hurme E, Mönkkönen M, Sippola AL, Ylinen H, Pentinsaari M (2008) Role of the Siberian flying squirrel as an umbrella species for biodiversity in northern boreal forests. Ecol Indic 8:246–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. IZA (International Zinc Association) (2015) Zinc in the environment. Accessed 23 April 2016
  50. Jacobsen CS, Hjelmsø MH (2014) Agricultural soils, pesticides and microbial diversity. Curr Opin Biotechnol 27:15–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jacques D, Mallants D, Simunek J, Van Genuchten TM (2008) Modelling the fate of uranium from inorganic phosphorus fertilizer applications in agriculture. In: De Kok LJ, Schnug E (eds) Loads and fate of fertilizer-derived uranium. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp 57–64Google Scholar
  52. Jeffery S, Gardi C, Jones A, Montanarella L, Marmo L, Miko L, Ritz K, Peres G, R€ombke J, Van der Putten HRSG (2010) European atlas of soil biodiversity, European Commission. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  53. Jelaska LS, Blanus M, Durbes P, Sven D, Jelaskac SD (2007) Heavy metal concentrations in ground beetles, leaf litter, and soil of a forest ecosystem. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 66:74–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Johansson C, Norman M, Burman L (2009) Road traffic emission factors for heavy metals. Atmos Environ 43:4681–4688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jones TV (2010) Old Cape Town mines. Accessed 17 November 2015
  56. Jones RJA, Houskova B, Montanarella L, Bullock P (2005) Soil resources of Europe: second edition. European Soil Bureau Research Report No. 9, Eur 20559 EN. Office for Ofiicial Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, p 420Google Scholar
  57. Jouraeva VA, Johnson DL, Hassett JP, Nowak DJ (2002) Differences in accumulation of PAHs and metals on the leaves of Tilia euchlora and Pyrus calleryana. Environ Pollut 120:331–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kaila A, Asam Z, Sarkkola S, Xiao L, Laurén A, Vasander H, Nieminen M (2012) Decomposition of harvest residue needles on peatlands drained for forestry- implications for nutrient and heavy metal dynamics. For Ecol Manag 277:141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kareiva P, Tallis H, Ricketts TH, Daily GC, Polasky S (eds) (2011) Natural capital: theory and practice of mapping ecosystem services. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p 392Google Scholar
  60. Kluge B, Werkenthin M, Wessolek G (2014) Metal leaching in a highway embankment on field and laboratory scale. Sci Total Environ 493:495–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kříbek B, Majer V, Veselovský F, Nyambe I (2010) Discrimination of lithogenic and anthropogenic sources of metals and sulphur in soils in the central northern part of the Zambian Copperbelt Mining District: a topsoil vs. subsurface soil concept. J Geochem Explor 104:69–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kupiainen K (2007) Road dust from pavement wear and traction sanding. Monographs of the boreal environment research, no. 26, doctoral dissertation, pp 8-39Google Scholar
  63. Lee MA, Davies L, Power SA (2012) Effects of roads on adjacent plant community composition and ecosystem function: an example from three calcareous ecosystems. Environ Pollut 163:273–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Legret M, Pagotto C (1999) Evaluation of pollutant loadings in the runoff waters from a major rural highway. Sci Total Environ 235:143–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Li LY (2006) Retention capacity and environmental mobility of Pb in soils along highway corridor. Water Air Soil Pollut 170:211–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Li X, Liu L, Wang Y, Luo G, Chen X, Yang X, Hall MHP, Guo R, Wang H, Cui J, He X (2013) Heavy metal contamination of urban soil in an old industrial city (Shenyang) in Northeast China. Geoderma 192:50–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Li ZY, Ma ZW, Van der Kuijp TJ, Yuan ZW, Huang L (2014) A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 468:843–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Liang YC, Zhu YG, Smith FA, Lambers H (2010) Soil–plant interactions and sustainability of eco-agriculture in arid region: a crucially important topic to address. Plant Soil 326:1–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Loppi S, Nelli L, Ancora S, Bargagli R (1997) Passive monitoring of trace elements by means of tree leaves, epiphytic lichens and bark substrate. Environ Monit Assess 45(1):81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Matthies SA, Rüter S, Schaarschmidt F, Prasse R (2017) Determinants of species richness within and across taxonomic groups in urban green spaces. Urban Ecosyst 20(4):897–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McLaughlin SB, Percy KE (1999) Forest health in North America: some perspectives on potential roles of climate and air pollution. Water Air Soil Pollut 116:151–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nogueira CMCA, Röllin HB (2011) Manganese: environmental pollution and health effects. WHO collaborating Center in Occupational Health, JohannesburgGoogle Scholar
  73. Odendaal JP, Reinecke AJ (1999) The sublethal effects and accumulation of cadmium in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio laevis Latr. (Crustacea, Isopoda). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 36:64–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Orgiazzi A, Panagos P, Yigini YB, Dunbar M, Gardi C, Montanarella L, Ballabio C (2016) A knowledge-based approach to estimating the magnitude and spatial patterns of potential threats to soil biodiversity. Sci Total Environ 545–546:11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Piketh SJ, Walton N (2004) Characteristics of atmospheric transport of air pollution for Africa. Climatology research group, University of the Witwatersrand, JohannesburgGoogle Scholar
  76. Pruski AM, Dixon DR (2002) Effects of cadmium on nuclear integrity and DNA repair efficiency in the gill cells of Mytilus edulis. L. Aquat Toxicol 57:127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Raukas A (2010) Sustainable development and environmental risks in Estonia. Agron Res 8:351–356 (Special IssueI)Google Scholar
  78. Rey B, Bullock JM (2012) Restoration of biodiversity and ecosystem services on agricultural land. Ecosystems 15:883–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Richardson JB, Donaldson EC, Kaste JM, Friedland AJ (2015) Forest floor lead, copper and zinc concentrations across the north eastern United States: synthesizing spatial and temporal responses. Science 505:851–859Google Scholar
  80. Sacharová J, Suchara I (1998) Atmospheric deposition levels of chosen elements inthe Czech Republic determined in the framework of the International Bryomonitoring Program 1995. Sci Total Environ 225:32–50Google Scholar
  81. SANBI (2016) Giant pill millipede. Accessed 23 September 2016
  82. (2017) Seven ancient forests in and around Cape Town. Accessed 3 June 2017
  83. Schauer JJ, Lough GC, Shafer MM, Christensen WF, Arndt MF, De Minter JT, Park JS (2006) Characterization of metals emitted from motor vehicles. Health Effect Inst 133:1–88Google Scholar
  84. Schwarz B, Dietrich C, Cesarz S, Scherer-Lorenzen M, Auge H, Schulz E, Eisenhauer N (2015) Non-significant tree diversity but significant identity effects on earthworm communities in three tree diversity experiments. Eur J Soil Biol 67:17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Selonen S, Setälä H (2015) Soil processes and tree growth at shooting ranges in a boreal forest reflect contamination history and lead-induced changes in soil food webs. Sci Total Environ 518-519:320–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Siudek P, Frankowski M, Siepak J (2015) Trace element distribution in the snow cover from an urban area in Central Poland. Environ Monit Assess 187:225–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Slemr F, Brunke EG, Ebinghaus R, Kuss F (2011) Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995. Atmos Chem Phys 11:2355–2375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Stafilov T, Sajn R, Pencevski Z, Boev B, Frontasyeva MV, Strelkova LP (2010) Heavy metal contamination of topsoils around a lead and zinc smelter in the Republic of Macedonia. J Hazard Mater 175:896–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. StatsSA (2011) City of Cape Town population size. Accessed 20 October 2017
  90. Steinnes E, Friedland AJ (2006) Metal contamination of natural surface soils from long-range atmospheric transport: existing and missing knowledge. Environ Rev 14:169–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stolte J, Tesfai M, Øygarden L, Kværnø S, Keizer J, Verheijen F, Panagos P, Ballabio C, Hessel R (2016) Soil threats in Europe: Status, Methods, drivers and effects on ecosystem services. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, European Soil Data Centre EUR 27607Google Scholar
  92. Sylvain ZA, Wall DH (2011) Linking soil biodiversity and vegetation: implications for a changing planet. Am J Bot 98:517–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tan JH, Duan JC (2013) Heavy metals in aerosol in China: pollution, sources, and control strategies. J Grad Univ Chin Acad Sci 30:145–155 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  94. Thorpe A, Harrison RM (2008) Sources and properties of non-exhaust particulate matter from road traffic: a review. Sci Total Environ 400(1–3):270–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Turbé A, De Toni A, Benito P, Lavelle P, Lavelle P, Camacho NR, Van Der Putten WH, Labouze E, Mudga S (2010) Soil biodiversity: functions, threats and tools for policy makers. Bio intelligence service, IRD, and NIOO, Report for European Commission. DG Environment, Brussels, p 250Google Scholar
  96. Tyler G (2005) Changes in the concentrations of major, minor and rare-earth elements during leaf senescence and decomposition in a Fagus sylvatica forest. For Ecol Manag 206:167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Underwood EC, Viers JH, Klausmeyer KR, Cox RL, Shaw MR (2009) Threats and biodiversity in the Mediterranean biome. Divers Distrib 15:188–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vrscaj B, Poggio L, Marsan FA (2008) A method for soil environmental quality evaluation for management and planning in urban areas. Landsc Urban Plan 88:81–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wåhlin P, Berkowicz R, Palmgre F (2006) Characterization of traffic-generated particulate matter in Copenhagen. Atmos Environ 40(12):2151–2159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wang LT, Wei Z, Yang J, Zhang Y, Zhang FF, Su J, Meng CC, Zhang Q (2014) The 2013 severe haze over southern Hebei, China: model evaluation, source apportionment, and policy implications. Atmos Chem Phys 14:3151–3173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wei Z, Wang L-T, Chen M-Z, Zheng Y (2014) The 2013 severe haze over the southern Hebei, China: PM2.5 composition and source apportionment. Atmos Pollut Res 5:759–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wheels24 (2017) You'll never guess how many vehicles are registered in SA. Accessed 3 November 2017
  103. Wolterbeek B (2002) Biomonitoring of trace element air pollution: principles, possibilities and perspectives. Environ Pollut 120(1):11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Xing GX, Zhu JG, Xiong ZQ, Yamasaki S (2004) Ag, Ta, Ru, and Ir enrichment in surface soil: evidence for land pollution of heavy metal from atmospheric deposition. Global Bio Geochem Cycles 18:GB 1046,
  105. Yang F, Tan J, Zhao Q, Du Z, He K, Ma Y, Duan F, Chen G, Zhao Q (2011a) Characteristics of PM2.5 speciation in representative megacities and across China. Atmos Chem Phys 11:5207–5219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Yang ZP, Lu WX, Long YQ, Bao XH, Yang QC (2011b) Assessment of heavy metals contamination in urban topsoil from Changchun City, China. J Geochem Explor 108:27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Yang LX, Cheng SH, Wang XF, Nie W, Xu PJ, Gao XM, Yuan C, Wang WX (2013) Source identification and health impact of PM2.5 in a heavily polluted urban atmosphere in China. Atmos Environ 75:265–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Yu LD, Wang GF, Zhang RJ, Zhang LM, Song Y, Wu BB, Li XF, An K, Chu JH (2013) Characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5 in an urban environment in Beijing. Aerosol Air Qual Res 13:574–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zhang GL, Zhu YG, Fu BJ (2003) Quality changes of soils in urban and suburban areas and its eco-environmental impacts — a review. Acta Ecol Sin 23:539–546 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  110. Zhang H, Yin R, Feng X, Sommar J, Anderson CWN, Sapkota A, Fu X, Larssen T (2013) Atmospheric mercury inputs in montane soils increase with elevation: evidence from mercury isotope signatures. Rep-Uk Sci 3:1–8Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Occupational Studies, Faculty of Applied SciencesCape Peninsula University of TechnologyCape TownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Conservation and Marine Science, Faculty of Applied SciencesCape Peninsula University of TechnologyCape TownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations