Modulating effect of tiron on the capability of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in the brain of rats exposed to radiation or manganese toxicity

  • Nadia Abdel-MagiedEmail author
  • Nahed Abdel-Aziz
  • Shereen M. Shedid
  • Amal G. Ahmed
Research Article


The brain is an important organ rich in mitochondria and more susceptible to oxidative stress. Tiron (sodium 4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate) is a potent antioxidant. This study aims to evaluate the effect of tiron on the impairment of brain mitochondria induced by exposure to radiation or manganese (Mn) toxicity. We assessed the capability of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) through determination of mitochondrial redox state, the activity of electron transport chain (ETC), and Krebs cycle as well as the level of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Rats were exposed to 7 Gy of γ-rays or injected i.p. with manganese chloride (100 mg/kg), then treated with tiron (471 mg/kg) for 7 days. The results showed that tiron treatment revealed positive modulation on the mitochondrial redox state manifested by a marked decrease of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total nitrate/nitrite (NOx) associated with a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH) content, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Moreover, tiron can increase the activity of ETC through preventing the depletion in the activity of mitochondrial complexes (I, II, III, and IV), an elevation of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and cytochrome c (Cyt-c) levels. Additionally, tiron showed a noticeable increase in mitochondrial aconitase (mt-aconitase) activity as the major component of Krebs cycle to maintain a high level of ATP production. Tiron also can restore mitochondrial metal homeostasis through positive changes in the levels of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), Mn, and copper (Cu). It can be concluded that tiron may be used as a good mitigating agent to attenuate the harmful effects on the brain through the inhibition of mitochondrial injury post-exposure to radiation or Mn toxicity.


MnCl2 γ-Radiation Brain Mitochondria Tiron ATP 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadia Abdel-Magied
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nahed Abdel-Aziz
    • 1
  • Shereen M. Shedid
    • 1
  • Amal G. Ahmed
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy AuthorityNational Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT)Nasr CityEgypt

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