Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 11, pp 11482–11495 | Cite as

Methylene blue dye removal on silver nanoparticles reduced by Kyllinga brevifolia

  • Norain IsaEmail author
  • Zainovia Lockman
Research Article


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by reacting Kyllinga brevifolia extract (KBE) with AgNO3 aqueous solution at room temperature (22 ± 3 °C). The phytochemical constituents in KBE responsible for the reduction process were identified as carbohydrate, protein, and plant sterols (stigmasterol and campesterol). KBE was also found to function as a capping agent for stabilization of AgNPs. The AgNPs were stable at room temperature and had a quasi-spherical shape with an average particle size 22.3 nm. The use of KBE offers not only eco-friendly and non-pathogenic path for AgNPs formation, it also induced rapid formation of the AgNPs. Methylene blue (MB) removal was then done on the AgNPs in the presence of either KBE or NaBH4. Ninety-three percent removal of MB was achieved with a rate of reaction 0.2663 min−1 in the solution with KBE+AgNPs (pH 2). However, in NaBH4+AgNPs system, 100% MB removal was achieved at pH 8–10. The reaction rate was 2.5715 min−1 indicating a fast removal rate of MB dye. The process of reduction occurs via electron relay effect whereas in KBE+AgNPs system, sedimentation occurred along with the reduction process. Nevertheless, the use of KBE+AgNPs system is preferred as the reducing agent is more benign to the environment.


Electron relay effect Kyllinga brevifolia extract Methylene blue dye Silver nanoparticle Sodium borohydride 


Funding information

This work was supported by the Malaysian Ministry of Education (MOE) [grant numbers 600-RMI/RAGS 5/3 (20/2013) and 600-RMI/RACE 16/6/2 (5/2013)].


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Green Electronics NanoMaterials Group (GEMs), School of Materials and Mineral Resources EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia
  2. 2.Sensor and Environmental Research Group (SERG), Department of Applied SciencesTechnology University MARA, Cawangan Pulau PinangPermatang PauhMalaysia

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