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Inequality of female health and its relation with urbanization level in China: geographic variation perspective

  • Hao Yang
  • Haixia PuEmail author
  • Shaobing Wang
  • Runxiang Ni
  • Bin Li
Research Article
  • 33 Downloads

Abstract

Urbanization development plays a vital role in the health of modern residents; however, there have been very limited researches to specifically and comprehensively explore the relationship between urbanization level evaluating indicators (ULEIs) and female health outcomes. The mortality rate of breast cancer (BC), cervical cancer (CC), and ovarian cancer (OC) and classified urbanization factor are collected at provincial level. Stepwise regression model (SRM) and geographically weighted regression model (GWRM) are conducted to obtain spatial relationship between the mortality rate of those cancer and ULEI. Our results show that there is remarkable difference of mortality rate of BC, CC, and OC in different provinces as well as higher BC, CC, and OC distributed in northern regions. The increase of value added of primary industry (VAPI), taxi, and coal consumption has detrimental effect on BC and CC. Fuel oil consumption (FOC) ultimately results in increase of mortality rate of BC and OC, and urban fixed asset investment (UFAI) poses a risk to increase the mortality rate of OC. Contrarily, natural gas consumption (NGC) appear to mitigate mortality rate of BC. In particular, our findings demonstrate that there exist spatial differences for VAPI, FOC, NGC, taxi, and coal consumption influencing BC, CC, and OC. It is suggested that policy makers should take account of regional discrepancy and implement a sustainable urbanization development considering female health.

Keywords

Urbanization development Breast cancer Cervical cancer Ovarian cancer Geographically weighted regression 

Abbreviations

ULEIs

Urbanization level evaluating indicators

BC

Breast cancer

CC

Cervical cancer

OC

Ovarian cancer

SRM

Stepwise regression model

GWRM

Geographically weighted regression model

VAPI

Value added of primary industry

FOC

Fuel oil consumption

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to express our gratitude to Hongmei Wang from the Nanjing University for support and assistance during data collection.

Funding information

Financial support for this research was provided by projects funded by the China Postdoctoral Science Fund (grant no. 2018M631383), the Humanities and Social Science Research Project of the Ministry of Education (grant no. 14YJCZH069), Science and Technology Project of the Chongqing Municipal Education Committee (grant no. KJ1600622), and Chongqing Federation of Social Sciences (grant no. 2017YBGL147).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Academy of Social SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of EconomicsPeking UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.College of Tourism and Land ResourcesChongqing Technology and Business UniversityChongqingChina
  4. 4.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  5. 5.Rural Energy & Environment AgencyMinistry of Agriculture and Rural AffairsBeijingChina

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