Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 11, pp 10800–10815 | Cite as

Reproduction of Eutropiichthys vacha (Schilbeidae) in the Ganges River (NW Bangladesh) with special reference to potential influence of climate variability

  • Dalia Khatun
  • Md. Yeamin HossainEmail author
  • Fairuz Nawer
  • Ashraf A. Mostafa
  • Abdulaziz A. Al-Askar
Research Article


The Batchwa vacha, Eutropiichthys vacha is commercially important, supporting a viable small- and large-scale fishery throughout the Ganges River, NW Bangladesh. This study provides detail information on reproduction of E. vacha including size at sexual maturity, spawning and peak spawning season, and fecundity based on 734 female specimens through regular monthly sampling using cast net, gill net, and square lift net in the Ganges River during January to December 2016. Also, our study estimated the effects of climate change including temperature and rainfall on reproduction of E. vacha in the Ganges River. For each individual, lengths (total length, TL; standard length, SL) and body weight (BW) were measured with slide caliper and digital balance, respectively. Gonads (ovaries) were collected carefully by ventral dissection of each female specimen and weighed to the nearest 0.01 g accuracy. The gonadosomatic index (GSI % = (GW/BW) ×100), modified gonadosomatic index (MGSI % = (GW/BW − GW) × 100), and Dobriyal index (DI = \( \sqrt[3]{\mathrm{GW}} \)) were calculated to estimate the size at sexual maturity (L50) and spawning season. Based on GSI, MGSI, and DI, the L50 was calculated as 12.5 cm TL for female. The TL50, the TL at which 50% of individuals become mature, was calculated by logistic equation as 12.7 cm. Also, on the basis of higher values of GSI, MGSI, and DI, spawning season was ranged from April to August, with the peak in June–July, signifying the peak spawning season for E. vacha in the Ganges River. The total fecundity (FT) ranged from 4800 to 77,976 (mean ± SD, 31384 ± 23,747) and was highly correlated with TL and BW. Water temperature during the spawning period ranged from 28 to 34 °C, with an average of 31 °C and there was significant correlation between temperature and GSI. Also, the spawning season coincides with the peak rainfall and there was significant correlation between rainfall and GSI. Additionally, analysis of long data series indicated that annual average air temperature is increasing by 0.0258 °C/year, while the annual average rainfall is decreasing by 3.107 mm/year. Finally, the findings of this study would be very effective to impose specific management for E. vacha in the Ganges River and surrounding ecosystems.


Gonadosomatic index Temperature Rainfall Eutropiichthys vacha Bangladesh 



The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding the work through the research group project No. RGP-1438-90.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Fisheries, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of RajshahiRajshahiBangladesh
  2. 2.Faculty of FisheriesKagoshima UniversityKagoshimaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhKingdom of Saudi Arabia

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