Pyrene degradation by marine-derived ascomycete: process optimization, toxicity, and metabolic analyses
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Marine-derived fungi are relevant genetic resources for bioremediation of saline environments/processes. Among the five fungi recovered from marine sponges able to degrade pyrene (Py) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), Tolypocladium sp. strain CBMAI 1346 and Xylaria sp. CBMAI 1464 presented the best removal rates of Py and BaP, respectively. Since the decrease in BaP was related to mycelial adsorption, a combined strategy was applied for the investigation of Py degradation by the fungus Tolypocladium sp. CBMAI 1346. The selected fungus was able to degrade about 95% of Py after 7 days of incubation (optimized conditions), generating metabolites different from the ones found before optimization. Metabolites and transcriptomic data revealed that the degradation occurred mainly by the cytochrome P450 pathway. Putative monooxygenases and dioxygenases found in the transcriptome may play an important role. After 21 days of degradation, no toxicity was found in the optimized culture conditions. The findings from the present study highlight the potential of marine-derived fungi to degrade environmental pollutants and convey innovative information related to the metabolism of pyrene.
KeywordsPAH degradation Artemia Experimental design Marine biotechnology Transcriptome
MRSV thanks the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) (no. 2011/18769-3) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for her scholarships. GALV thanks the FAPESP (no. 2018/03372-0) for her technical grant. IVRO thanks the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) (no. 170714/2017-9) for his scholarship. LDS thanks the CNPq for her Productivity Fellowship (303145/2016-1). The authors would like to thank Lucas Miotelo for the assistance with the article images.
This study was financed by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) (grant nos. 2013/19486-0 and 2016/07957-7).
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