Degradation of naproxen in chlorination and UV/chlorine processes: kinetics and degradation products
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Naproxen (NAP) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug which has been widely used and frequently detected in water environments. This study investigated the NAP degradation in the chlorination and UV/chlorine disinfection processes, which usually acted as the last barriers for water treatment. The results showed that both chlorination and UV/chlorine disinfection could remove NAP effectively. At various chlorine dosages (0.1~0.5 mM), the contributions of chlorination and reactive radicals to the degradation of NAP in the UV/chlorine process were calculated to be 50.5~56.9% and 43.1~49.5%, respectively. However, the reactive radicals dominated in NAP degradation in alkaline solutions, while chlorination dominated in acidic conditions. The HCO3− (10~50 mM) slightly inhibited, Cl− (10~50 mM) gradually promoted, and HA (1~5 mg/L) significantly reduced NAP degradation by UV/chlorine process. The degradation intermediates and products were obtained via high-performance liquid chromatography with QE-MS/MS; NAP was degraded by demethylation, acetylation, and dicarboxylic acid pathways during the chlorination and UV/chlorination processes.
KeywordsNaproxen Chlorination UV/chlorine disinfection Kinetics Degradation products
This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (51578066 and 51608036) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2015ZCQ-HJ-02).
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