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Degradation of naproxen in chlorination and UV/chlorine processes: kinetics and degradation products

  • Yongze Liu
  • Yuqing Tang
  • Yongxin Wu
  • Li FengEmail author
  • Liqiu Zhang
Appropriate Technologies to Combat Water Pollution
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Abstract

Naproxen (NAP) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug which has been widely used and frequently detected in water environments. This study investigated the NAP degradation in the chlorination and UV/chlorine disinfection processes, which usually acted as the last barriers for water treatment. The results showed that both chlorination and UV/chlorine disinfection could remove NAP effectively. At various chlorine dosages (0.1~0.5 mM), the contributions of chlorination and reactive radicals to the degradation of NAP in the UV/chlorine process were calculated to be 50.5~56.9% and 43.1~49.5%, respectively. However, the reactive radicals dominated in NAP degradation in alkaline solutions, while chlorination dominated in acidic conditions. The HCO3 (10~50 mM) slightly inhibited, Cl (10~50 mM) gradually promoted, and HA (1~5 mg/L) significantly reduced NAP degradation by UV/chlorine process. The degradation intermediates and products were obtained via high-performance liquid chromatography with QE-MS/MS; NAP was degraded by demethylation, acetylation, and dicarboxylic acid pathways during the chlorination and UV/chlorination processes.

Keywords

Naproxen Chlorination UV/chlorine disinfection Kinetics Degradation products 

Notes

Funding information

This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (51578066 and 51608036) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2015ZCQ-HJ-02).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yongze Liu
    • 1
  • Yuqing Tang
    • 1
  • Yongxin Wu
    • 1
  • Li Feng
    • 1
    Email author
  • Liqiu Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Beijing Key Laboratory for Source Control Technology of Water Pollution, Engineering Research Center for Water Pollution Source Control and Eco-remediation, School of Environmental Science and EngineeringBeijing Forestry UniversityBeijingChina

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