Advertisement

Spatial variation of heavy metals and uptake potential by Typha domingensis in a tropical reservoir in the midlands region, Zimbabwe

  • Trevor DubeEmail author
  • Grace Mhangwa
  • Caston Makaka
  • Bridget Parirenyatwa
  • Tinashe Muteveri
Research Article

Abstract

Pollution of aquatic ecosystems with heavy metals is now of global concern due to their dangers to human health and persistence in the environment. An investigation on the spatial distribution of heavy metals in water and sediments and the bioaccumulation potential of heavy metals by plant parts (i.e. roots, stems and leaves) of aquatic macrophyte Typha domingensis (Pers.) Steud in a tropical reservoir was carried out. The results showed no difference in spatial distribution of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Mn) in water and sediments from the riverine to the dam wall. The concentration of heavy metals Fe, Cu, Cr and Zn in T. domingensis was of the order root > stem > leaves, but for Pb, Cd and Mn, it followed the order root > leaf > stem. The metal transfer between roots and shoots of T. domingensis followed the order Zn > Pb > Fe > Cu > Cd > Cr. The bio-concentration factor (BCF) was low (BCF < 1) for all the selected metals while the transfer factor (TF) varied among metals suggesting that T. domingensis is not an accumulator of the studied metals. The high concentration of heavy metals found in the water (0.7–16.14 mg L−1) and sediments (43.6–569.18 mg kg−1) present a potential risk to both ecological health and human health for the population living in the area. The results of metal concentration in water and sediments from this study are important as a baseline for future monitoring studies. Further studies on bioavailability of metals to other macrophytes and aquatic organisms are recommended.

Keywords

Pollution Heavy metals Reservoir Bioaccumulation Macrophytes 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Midlands State University for providing resources for sample collection.

We are grateful to Mr. M. Nyangoma for assistance with the collection of samples. We also thank Mr. T. Mativavarira from Zim Metallurgical Assay Laboratory for assistance with the analysis of heavy metals in collected samples.

References

  1. American Public Health Association APHA (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th Edition, American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Environmental Federation. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. Apak R, Hizal J, Ustaer C (1999) Correlation between the limiting pH of metal ion solubility and Total metal concentration. J Colloid Interface Sci 211:185–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker AJM (1981) Accumulators and excluder: strategies in response of plants to heavy metals. J Plant Nutr 3:643–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barron MG (1990) Bioconcentration. Will water-borne organic chemicals accumulate in aquatic animals? Environ Sci Technol 24:1612–1618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y (1995) Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J R Stat Soc 57:289–300Google Scholar
  6. Berg H, Kiibus M, Kautsky N (1995) Heavy metals in tropical Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe. Water Air Soil Pollut 83:237–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bielmyer GK, Gatlin D, Isely JJ, Tomasso J, Klaine SJ (2005) Responses of hybrid striped bass to waterborne and dietary copper in freshwater and saltwater. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 140:131–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bielmyer G, Tomasso J, Klaine S (2006) Physiological responses of hybrid striped bass to aqueous Copperin freshwater and saltwater. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 50:531–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonsignore M, Manta DS, Mirto S, Quinci EM, Ape F, Montalto V, Gristina M, Traina A, Sprovieri M (2018) Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish, crustaceans, molluscs and echinoderms from the Tuscany coast. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 162:554–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chandra R, Yadav S (2011) Phytoremediation of CD, CR, CU, MN, FE, NI, PB and ZN from aqueous solution using Phragmites Cummunis, Typha Angustifolia and Cyperus Esculentus. Int J Phytoremediation 13:580–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheng Q, Lou G, Huang W, Li X (2017) Assessment and potential sources of metals in the surface sediments of the Yellow River Delta, eastern China. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 24:17446–17454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cosio C, Flück R, Regier N, Slaveykova VI (2014) Effects of macrophytes on the fate of mercury in aquatic systems. Environ Toxicol Chem 33:1225–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dalu T, Wasserman RJ, Wu Q, Froneman WP, Weyl OLF (2018) River sediment metal and nutrient variations along an urban-agriculture gradient in an arid austral landscape: implications for environmental health. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 25:2842–2852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. de Castro-Catala N, Kuzmanovic M, Roig N, Sierra J, Ginebreda A, Barcelo D, Perez S, Petrovic M, Pico Y, Schuhmacher M, Munoz I (2016) Ecotoxicity of sediments in rivers: invertebrate community, toxicity bioassays and the toxic unit approach as complementary assessment tools. Sci Total Environ 540:297–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Souza CM, Pestana MHD, Lacerda LD (1986) Geochemical partitioning of heavy metals in sediments of three estuaries along the coast of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Sci Total Environ 58:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DeForest DK, Meyer JS (2015) Critical review: toxicity of dietborne metals to aquatic organisms. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 45:1176–1241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dube K, Sigauke K (2015) Irrigation technology for smallholder farmers: a strategy for achieving household food security in Lower Gweru Zimbabwe. South African Journal Agricultural Extension 43:1–11Google Scholar
  18. Dunn OJ (1964) Multiple comparisons using rank sums. Technometrics 6:241–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eid EM, Shaltout KH, El-Sheikh MA, Asaeda T (2012) Seasonal courses of nutrients and heavy metals in water, sediment and above- and below-ground Typha domingensis biomass in Lake Burullus (Egypt): perspectives for phytoremediation. Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 207:783–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fornaroli R, Ippolito A, Tolkkinen MJ, Mykra H, Muotka T, Balistrieri LS, Schmidt TS (2018) Disentangling the effects of low pH and metal mixture toxicity on macroinvertebrate diversity. Environ Pollut 235:889–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gascón Díez E, Corella JP, Adatte T, Thevenon F, Loizeau J-L (2017) High-resolution reconstruction of the 20th century history of trace metals, major elements, and organic matter in sediments in a contaminated area of Lake Geneva, Switzerland. Appl Geochem 78:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gerber R, Smit NJ, van Vuren JHJ, Nakayama SMM, Yohannes YB, Ikenaka Y, Ishizuka M, Wepener V (2015) Application of a sediment quality index for the assessment and monitoring of metals and organochlorines in a premier conservation area. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:19971–19989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ghosh M, Singh SP (2005) A comparative study of cadmium phytoextraction by accumulator and weed species. Environ Pollut 133:365–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Goher ME, Farhat HI, Abdo MH, Salem SG (2014) Metal pollution assessment in the surface sediment of Lake Nasser, Egypt. Egypt J Aquat Res 40:213–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Greenberg AE, Connors JJ, Jenkin D (1980) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 15th edn. American Public Health Association, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  26. Hamilton PB, Cowx IG, Oleksiak MF, Griffiths AM, Grahn M, Stevens JR, Carvalho GR, Nicol E, Tyler CR (2016) Population-level consequences for wild fish exposed to sublethal concentrations of chemicals – a critical review. Fish Fish 17:545–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hann BJ, Wishart MJ, Watson SB (2017) Long-term trends in benthic invertebrate populations (1929–2013) in Lake Winnipeg. J Great Lakes Res 43:938–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hegazy A, Abdel-Ghani N, El-Chaghaby G (2011) Phytoremediation of industrial wastewater potentiality by Typha domingensis. Int J Environ Sci Technol 8:639–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hoang TK, Probst A, Orange D, Gilbert F, Elger A, Kallerhoff J, Laurent F, Bassil S, Duong TT, Gerino M (2018) Bioturbation effects on bioaccumulation of cadmium in the wetland plant Typha latifolia: a nature-based experiment. Sci Total Environ 618:1284–1297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hou D, He J, Lü C, Ren L, Fan Q, Wang J, Xie Z (2013) Distribution characteristics and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals (cu, Pb, Zn, cd) in water and sediments from Lake Dalinouer, China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 93:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hseu Z-Y, Chen Z-S, Tsai C-C, Tsui C-C, Cheng S-F, Liu C-L, Lin H-T (2002) Digestion methods for Total heavy metals in sediments and soils. Water Air Soil Pollut 141:189–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hussain J, Husain I, Arif M, Gupta N (2017) Studies on heavy metal contamination in Godavari river basin. Appl Water Sci 7:4539–4548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jasrotia S, Kansal A, Mehra A (2017) Performance of aquatic plant species for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water. Appl Water Sci 7:889–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kahlon SK, Sharma G, Julka J, Kumar A, Sharma S, Stadler FJ (2018) Impact of heavy metals and nanoparticles on aquatic biota. Environ Chem Lett 16:919–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kim IS, Kang KH, Johnson-Green P, Lee EJ (2003) Investigation of heavy metal accumulation in Polygonum thunbergii for phytoextration. Environ Pollut 126:235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Klink A (2017) A comparison of trace metal bioaccumulation and distribution in Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis: implication for phytoremediation. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 24:3843–3852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ladislas S, El-Mufleh A, Gerente C, Chazarenc F, Andres Y, Bechet B (2012) Potential of aquatic Macrophytes as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in urban Stormwater runoff. Water Air Soil Pollut 223:877–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Levy DB, Redente EF, Uphoff GD (1999) Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of Pb–Zn tailings to big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). Soil Sci 164:363–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lu Q, He ZL, Graetz DA, Stoffella PJ, Yang X (2011) Uptake and distribution of metals by water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.). Environ Sci Pollut Res 18:978–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Moyo DZ, Chimbira C, Yalala P (2009) Observations on the helminth parasites of fish in Insukamini dam, Zimbabwe. Res J Agric Biol Sci 5:782–785Google Scholar
  41. Namieśnik J, Rabajczyk A (2010) The speciation and physico-chemical forms of metals in surface waters and sediments. Chem Speciat Bioavailab 22:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nhiwatiwa T, Barson M, Harrison AP, Utete B, Cooper RG (2011) Metal concentrations in water, sediment and sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus from three peri-urban rivers in the upper Manyame catchment, Zimbabwe. Afr J Aquat Sci 36:243–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Niyogi S, Brix KV, Grosell M (2014) Effects of chronic waterborne nickel exposure on growth, ion homeostasis, acid-base balance, and nickel uptake in the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Aquat Toxicol 150:36–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Olsen M, Fjeld E, Lydersen E (2019) The influence of a submerged meadow on uptake and trophic transfer of legacy mercury from contaminated sediment in the food web in a brackish Norwegian fjord. Sci Total Environ 654:209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Palmer MA, Covich AP, Lake S, Biro P, Brooks JJ, Cole J, Dahm C, Gibert J, Goedkoop W, Martens K, Verhoeven J, Van De Bund WJ (2000) Linkages between aquatic sediment biota and life above sediments as potential drivers of biodiversity and ecological ProcessesA disruption or intensification of the direct and indirect chemical, physical, or biological interactions between aquatic sediment biota and biota living above the sediments may accelerate biodiversity loss and contribute to the degradation of aquatic and riparian habitats. BioScience 50:1062–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rai PK (2008) Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation using wetland plants: an ecosustainable approach. Int J Phytoremediation 10:133–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rai PK (2009) Heavy metal phytoremediation from aquatic ecosystems with special reference to macrophytes. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 39:697–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rezania S, Taib SM, Md Din MF, Dahalan FA, Kamyab H (2016) Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater. J Hazard Mater 318:587–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Roig N, Sierra J, Moreno-Garrido I, Nieto E, Gallego EP, Schuhmacher M, Blasco J (2016) Metal bioavailability in freshwater sediment samples and their influence on ecological status of river basins. Sci Total Environ 540:287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Salomons W, De Rooij N, Kerdijk H, Bril J (1987) Sediments as a source for contaminants? Hydrobiologia 149:13–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sanmuga Priya E, Senthamil Selvan P (2017) Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) – an efficient and economic adsorbent for textile effluent treatment – a review. Arab J Chem 10:S3548–S3558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shaheen SM, Abdelrazek MAS, Elthoth M, Moghanm FS, Mohamed R, Hamza A, El-Habashi N, Wang J, Rinklebe J (2019) Potentially toxic elements in saltmarsh sediments and common reed (Phragmites australis) of Burullus coastal lagoon at North Nile Delta, Egypt: a survey and risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 649:1237–1249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Singovszka E, Balintova M, Demcak S, Pavlikova P (2017) Metal pollution indices of bottom sediment and surface water affected by acid mine drainage. Metals 7:284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tang W, Shan B, Zhang W, Zhang H, Wang L, Ding Y (2014) Heavy metal pollution characteristics of surface sediments in different aquatic ecosystems in eastern China: a comprehensive understanding. PLoS One 9:e108996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tao Y, Yuan Z, Wei M, Xiaona H (2012) Characterization of heavy metals in water and sediments in Taihu Lake, China. Environ Monit Assess 184:4367–4382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Teta C, Ncube M, Naik YS (2017) Heavy metal contamination of water and fish in peri-urban dams around Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Afr J Aquat Sci 42:351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Utete B, Phiri C, Mlambo SS, Maringapasi N, Muboko N, Fregene TB, Kavhu B (2018) Metal accumulation in two contiguous eutrophic peri-urban lakes, Chivero and Manyame, Zimbabwe. Afr J Aquat Sci 43:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. van der Meer TV, de Baat ML, Verdonschot PFM, Kraak MHS (2017) Benthic invertebrate bioturbation activity determines species specific sensitivity to sediment contamination. Front Environ Sci 5:1–5Google Scholar
  59. Verhaert V, Teuchies J, Vlok W, Wepener V, Addo-Bediako A, Jooste A, Blust R, Bervoets L (2019) Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of total mercury in the subtropical Olifants River basin, South Africa. Chemosphere 216:832–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. W.H.O. (2017) Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 4th edition, incorporating the 1st addendum. World Health Organization; Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  61. Wang H, Sun L, Liu Z, Luo Q (2017) Spatial distribution and seasonal variations of heavy metal contamination in surface waters of Liaohe River, Northeast China. Chin Geogr Sci 27:52–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wang N-X, Liu Y-Y, Wei Z-B, Yang L-Y, Miao A-J (2018) Waterborne and Dietborne toxicity of inorganic arsenic to the freshwater zooplankton Daphnia magna. Environ Sci Technol 52:8912–8919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yabanli M, Yozukmaz A, Sel F (2014) Heavy metal accumulation in the leaves, stem and root of the invasive submerged macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum L. (Haloragaceae): an example of Kadin Creek (Mugla, Turkey). Braz Arch Biol Technol 57:434–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yang J, Chen L, Liu L-Z, Shi W-L, Meng X-Z (2014) Comprehensive risk assessment of heavy metals in lake sediment from public parks in Shanghai. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 102:129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Yoon J, Xinde C, Qixing Z, Lena QM (2006) Accumulation of Pb, cu, and Zn in native plants growing on a contaminated Florida site. Sci Total Environ 368:456–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zayed A, Gowthaman S, Terry N (1998) Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: I. Duckweed. J Environ Qual 27:715–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zeng H, Wu J (2013) Heavy metal pollution of lakes along the mid-lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China: intensity, sources and spatial patterns. Int J Environ Res Public Health 10:793–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zhang Y, Tian Y, Shen M, Zeng G (2018) Heavy metals in soils and sediments from Dongting Lake in China: occurrence, sources, and spatial distribution by multivariate statistical analysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 25:13687–13696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zhou Q, Zhang J, Fu J, Shi J, Jiang G (2008) Biomonitoring: an appealing tool for assessment of metal pollution in the aquatic ecosystem. Anal Chim Acta 606:135–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Biosciences and BiotechnologyMidlands State UniversityGweruZimbabwe
  2. 2.Department of Agriculture Extension Services, Ministry of LandsAgriculture and Rural ResettlementGweruZimbabwe

Personalised recommendations