Vertical variation of bulk and metabolically active prokaryotic community in sediment of a hypereutrophic freshwater lake
- 121 Downloads
This study was conducted to acquire novel insight into differences between bulk (16S rDNA) and metabolically active (16S rRNA) prokaryotic communities in the sediment of a hypereutrophic lake (Japan). In the bulk communities, the class Deltaproteobacteria and the order Methanomicrobiales were dominant among bacteria and methanogens. In the metabolically active communities, the class Alphaproteobacteria and the order Methanomicrobiales and the family Methanosaetaceae were frequently found among bacteria and methanogens. Unlike the bulk communities of prokaryotes, the composition of the metabolically active communities varied remarkably vertically, and their diversities greatly decreased in the lower 20 cm of sediment. The metabolically active prokaryotic community in the sediment core was divided into three sections based on their similarity: 0–6 cm (section 1), 9–18 cm (section 2), and 21–42 cm (section 3). This sectional distribution was consistent with the vertical pattern of the sedimentary stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios and oxidation–reduction potential in the porewater. These results suggest that vertical disturbance of the sediment may influence the communities and functions of metabolically active prokaryotes in freshwater lake sediments. Overall, our results indicate that rRNA analysis may be more effective than rDNA analysis for evaluation of relationships between actual microbial processes and material cycling in lake sediments.
KeywordsProkaryotic community Freshwater lake Sediment Vertical disturbance 16S rDNA 16S rRNA
The authors thank the staff at the National Institute for Environmental Studies for collecting sediment samples. The authors also thank Ms. Shigemi Taguchi for assistance with the clone library constructions. We also thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions, which helped to improve this paper.
- Amann RI, Ludwig W, Schleifer KH (1995) Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiol Rev 59:143–169Google Scholar
- Benz M, Schink B, Brune A (1998) Humic acid reduction by Propionibacterium freudenreichii and other fermenting bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:4507–4512Google Scholar
- Kamiya K, Fukushima T, Onda Y, Matsushige K, Mizugaki S (2009) Changes in sedimentation rates an phosphorus accumulation in shallow Japanese lakes during 30 years. Verh Internat Verein Limnol 30:1219–1224Google Scholar
- Tsuboi S, Yamamura S, Imai A, Satou T, Iwasaki K (2014) Linking temporal changes in bacterial community structures with the detection and phylogenetic analysis of neutral metalloprotease genes in the sediments of a hypereutrophic lake. Microbes Environ 29:314–321Google Scholar
- Xiong W, Xie P, Wang S, Niu Y, Yang X, Chen W (2015) Sources of organic matter affect depth-related microbial community composition in sediments of Lake Erhai, Southwest China. J Limnol 74:310–323Google Scholar
- Zeng J, Yang L, Li J, Liang Y, Xiao L, Jiang L, Zhao D (2009) Vertical distribution of bacterial community structure in the sediments of two eutrophic lakes revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and multivariate analysis techniques. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 25:225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar