Ameliorative effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles against potassium bromate-mediated toxicity in Swiss albino rats
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Potassium bromate (PB) is a commonly used food additive, a prominent water disinfection by-product, and a class IIB carcinogen. It exerts a various degree of toxicity depending on its dose and exposure duration consumed with food and water in the living organisms. The present investigation aims to demonstrate the protective efficacy of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) derived from Ochradenus arabicus (OA) leaf extract by green technology in PB-challenged Swiss albino rats. The rodents were randomly distributed, under the lab-standardized treatment strategy, into the following six treatment groups: control (group I), PB alone (group II), ZnO alone (group III), ZnO NP alone (group IV), PB + ZnO (group V), and PB + ZnO NPs (group VI). The rats were sacrificed after completion of the treatment, and their blood and liver samples were collected for further analysis. Group II showed extensive toxic effects with altered liver function markers (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, glutathione-S-transferase, and thioredoxin reductase) and compromised redox status (SOD, CAT, GR, GPx, GSH, MDA, and total carbonyl content). The histopathological analysis and comet assay further supported the biochemical results of the same group. Besides, group III also showed moderate toxicity evidenced by an alteration in most of the studied parameters while group IV demonstrated mild toxicity after biochemical analysis indicating the excellent biocompatibility of the NPs. However, group VI exhibited attenuation of the PB-induced toxic insults to a significant level as compared to group II, whereas group V failed to show similar improvement in the studied parameters. All these findings entail that the ZnO NPs prepared by green synthesis have significant ameliorative property against PB-induced toxicity in vivo. Moreover, administration of the NPs improved the overall health of the treated animals profoundly. Hence, these NPs have significant therapeutic potential against the toxic effects of PB and similar compounds in vivo, and they are suitable to be used at the clinical and industrial levels.
KeywordsZinc oxide Nanoparticles Potassium bromate Toxicity In vivo Oxidative stress
The authors would like to extend their sincere thanks to the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, for funding this project (KACST Project Number MS-36-67).
IH, HE, and IMA performed the planing of the study and the experimental design. The nanoparticles were prepared and characterized by FMH and RAK, including the related text and figures. IH and JA conducted the animal husbandry, treatment, and in vivo biochemical analysis. IH executed the comet assay, while HE and KEI did the histopathological studies. IMA supervised the study and provided the required lab facilities and all authorized permissions. SA conducted the preparation of figures and statistical analysis. IH, HE, and IMA drafted the manuscript. All the authors have approved the final version of the revised manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
All the experiments and treatment protocols involving animals were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (KSA), under reference number 3/2/177492 (dated 24/05/2015). All the procedures of animal care and treatment were in accord with the guidelines of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA, India) and the National Institutes of Health, USA (the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals).
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