Comparison of different sequential extraction procedures for mercury fractionation in polluted soils
- 25 Downloads
Three sequential extraction procedures (SEPs), modified Tessier, modified BCR, and CIEMAT, were compared for mercury fractionation in polluted soils. With satisfactory total mercury recovery, the modified Tessier and modified BCR SEPs were comparable with each other in terms of extraction efficiency in equivalent mercury fractions, whereas both SEPs were not as efficient as the CIEMAT SEP. However, the CIEMAT SEP might underestimate the oxidizable mercury fractions due to the humic and fulvic complexes instead of the organic matter of the other two SEPs. For mercury bioavailability identification, based on Pearson correlation analysis, all fractions in each SEP were significantly correlated with mercury uptake in Ipomoea aquatica, causing difficulty in comparison. Partial correlation analysis indicated that the mobile mercury fractions extracted by the first step in all three SEPs had a positive correlation with mercury uptake by plant, while mercury bound to organic matter extracted by both modified Tessier and modified BCR SEPs presented negative correlation with mercury uptake by plant which was in contrast to CIEMAT SEP. Meanwhile, clearly positive correlations between mercury fractions extracted by the former three steps of CIEMAT SEP and mercury uptake in Ipomoea aquatica were observed, demonstrating that CIEMAT SEP provided more accurate results related to Hg bioavailability than did the other two SEPs.
KeywordsMercury fraction Mercury bioavailability Sequential extraction procedure Soil pollution Modified Tessier Modified BCR CIEMAT
The authors received financial support for this work from the Ministry of Land and Resources of P. R. China (Grant No. 201411089).
- Beckett PH (1989) The use of extractants in studies on trace metals in soils, sewage sludges, and sludge-treated soils, advances in soil science. Springer, pp. 143–176Google Scholar
- EPA U (2007): Mercury in sediment and tissue samples by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. United States Environmental Protection Agency pp 1–19Google Scholar
- Fernández-Martínez R, Loredo J, Ordóñez A, Rucandio I (2014) Mercury availability by operationally defined fractionation in granulometric distributions of soils and mine wastes from an abandoned cinnabar mine. Environ Sci: Processes & Impacts 16:1069–1075Google Scholar
- Fernández-Martínez R, Rucandio I (2014) Total mercury, organic mercury and mercury fractionation in soil profiles from the Almadén mercury mine area. Environ Sci: Proc Impacts 16:333–340Google Scholar
- Mäkelä M, Pöykiö R, Watkins G, Nurmesniemi H, Dahl O (2011) Application of a modified BCR approach to investigate the mobility and availability of trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg) from a solid residue matrix designed for soil amendment. World Academy of Science. Eng Technol 79:502–507Google Scholar
- Manara A (2012): Plant responses to heavy metal toxicity, plants and heavy metals. Springer, pp. 27–53Google Scholar
- Nasrabadi M, Omid M, Mazdeh AM (2017) Cadmium adsorption characteristics for Karaj riverbed sands. J Mater Environ Sci 8:1729–1736Google Scholar
- Nelson D, Sommers LE (1982): Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 539–579Google Scholar