Bioaccumulation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in carp in a water/sediment microcosm: important role of sediment particulate matter and bioturbation
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Sediments are reservoirs and sources of DDTs to the aquatic ecosystem. However, the role of sediment particulate matter and benthic organisms in transferring DDTs remains unclear. In this study, microcosms were built up with different groups to simulate a freshwater system with DDT-contaminated sediment and organisms. The impacts of different exposure routes (water and sediment) on the changes of DDT and its metabolites (DDD and DDE) in carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated. The bioturbation of Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae) was investigated to understand the fate and transfer of DDTs in aquatic environment. For the sediment treatment, the concentrations of o,p’-DDT in carp were significantly higher than those of p,p’-DDT, and the metallothionein (MT) content decreased. The bioaccumulation of DDTs in carp via sediment particulate matter was significantly higher/faster than that via overlying water. T. tubifex and sediment particulate matter accelerate DDT bioaccumulation in carp. Selective enrichment of the (+)-o,p’-DDT and (+)-o,p’-DDD was found in carp. These results help to reduce uncertainty in ecological and health risk assessments and to better understand the risk of DDTs in the environment.
KeywordsDDTs Sediment T. tubifex Carp Bioaccumulation
This study was supported by grants from the Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest (Grant No. 201503107-12), Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. LQ14B070004, LQ15B050001), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31501556), and the Special Fund for Public Projects of Zhejiang Province (Grant No.2016C32042).
Compliance with ethical standards
The animal experiments were in line with the current Chinese legislation and were approved by the independent Animal Ethical committee at China Agricultural University and Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences.
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