Impact of dietary nano-zinc oxide on immune response and antioxidant defense of broiler chickens
- 103 Downloads
This study aimed to elucidate the response of broiler chickens to the dietary nano-zinc supplementation in terms of immune response and antioxidant activity. Ninety-one-day-old chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments in three replicates, in a feeding trial that lasted for 5 weeks. Birds were fed a basal diet supplemented with inorganic zinc oxide at 40 mg/kg diet (control), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) at 40 mg/kg diet (ZN1), or ZnONPs at 80 mg/kg diet (ZN2). Birds were injected with DNP-KLH at the 7th and 21st days from the beginning of the experiment, and blood samples were collected on days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 to determine the levels of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) and malondialdehyde as well as the antioxidant enzyme activities. Cellular immunity was assayed by estimation of phagocytic percentage and index of peripheral monocytes of blood and estimation of the T lymphocyte activity using a lymphocyte transformation test. The results showed that feeding broiler chickens a diet supplemented with ZnONPs increased (p < 0.05) the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase and decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde compared to the control diet, without significant differences between NZ1 and NZ2 diets. Moreover, the chicks fed diets supplemented with ZnONPs showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum IgY, total lymphocyte count, and macrophages compared to the control. A higher significant response for antibodies IgY concentration was observed in birds fed the NZ2 vs NZ1 diet. Also, there was a significant increase in phagocytic activity and phagocytic index in ZnONP-fed groups with a higher significance in the group fed NZ1 than with NZ2 diet as compared with the control. In conclusion, ZnONP application up to 80 mg/kg in the diet is safe for broiler chickens and could improve their antioxidant defense and cellular immunity.
KeywordsNano-zinc Immunoglobulin Y Malondialdehyde Phagocytic activity Broiler chickens
We would like to thank the staff members of Nanotechnology Lab., Kafrelsheikh University, for their help and guidance.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Aebi H (1984) Catalase in vitro. In: Packer L (ed) Methods in enzymology, vol 105. Academic Press Inc.: San Diego, pp 121–126Google Scholar
- Abedini M, Shariatmadari F, Torshizi MAK, Ahmadi H (2018) Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on performance, egg quality, tissue zinc content, bone parameters, and antioxidative status in laying hens. Biol Trace Elem Res 184:259–267. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-017-1180-2
- Ahmadi F, Ebrahimnezhad Y, Ghalehkandi J et al (2014) The effect of dietary zinc oxide nanoparticles on the antioxidant state and serum enzymes activity in broiler chickens during starter. International Conference on Biological, Civil and Environmental Engineering (BCEE-2014) March 17-18, 2014 Dubai (UAE)Google Scholar
- Ali S, Masood S, Zaneb H et al (2017) Supplementation of zinc oxide nanoparticles has beneficial effects on intestinal morphology in broiler chicken. Pak Vet J 37(3):335–339Google Scholar
- Bach JF, Dardenne M (1989) Thymulin, a zinc-dependent hormone. Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother 6:25–29Google Scholar
- Khajarern J, Ratanasethakul C, Khajarern S et al (2002) Effect of zinc and manganese amino acid complexes (AvailaZ/M) on broiler breeder production and immunity. Poult Sci 81(Suppl 1):40 (Abstr.)Google Scholar
- Nielsen F, Mikkelsen BB, Nielsen JB, Andersen HR, Grandjean P (1997) Plasma malondialdehyde as biomarker for oxidative stress: reference interval and effects of life-style factors. Clin Chem 43:1209–1214Google Scholar
- NRC (1994) Nutrient requirements of poultry, 9th edn. National Academy Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
- Prasad AS, Bao B, Beck FWJ, Sarkar FH (2002) Zinc enhances the expression of interleukin-2 and interleukin-2 receptors in HUT-78 cells by way of NF-kappaB activation. J Lab Clin Med 140:272–289Google Scholar
- Sahoo A, Swain R, Mishra S (2014) Effect of inorganic, organic and nano zinc supplemented diets on bioavailability and immunity status of broilers. Int J Adv Res 2(11):828–837Google Scholar
- Sunder GS, Panda AK, Gopinath NCS, Rao SVR, Raju MVLN, Reddy MR, Kumar CV (2008) Effects of higher levels of zinc supplementation on performance, mineral availability, and immune competence in broiler chickens. J Appl Poult Res 17:79–86. https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2007-00029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tucker LA, Taylor-Pickard JA, Tucker LA (2005) Re-defining mineral nutrition. Nottingham University Press, ThrumptonGoogle Scholar
- Yamaguchy S (1991) The role of SOD antioxidant. J Natl Cancer Inst 28:221–232Google Scholar