Advertisement

Occurrence, speciation, and risks of trace metals in soils of greenhouse vegetable production from the vicinity of industrial areas in the Yangtze River Delta, China

  • Lanqin YangEmail author
  • Guoming Liu
  • Lin Di
  • Xiangyang Wu
  • Wenhua You
  • Biao HuangEmail author
Research Article
  • 28 Downloads

Abstract

The effect of industrial activities on trace metals in farmland of rapidly industrializing regions in developing countries has increasingly been a concern to the public. Here, soils were collected from 13 greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) farms or bases near industrial areas in the Yangtze River Delta of China to investigate the occurrence, speciation, and risks of Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Pb in GVP soil. The results revealed that the main metal elements causing GVP soil pollution were Cd, Zn, Ni, and Cu, of which contamination levels were generally unpolluted to moderately polluted. Zinc pollution was mainly attributed to heavy fertilization, while Cd, Ni, and Cu pollution may be greatly ascribed to industrial effluents and coal combustion. Metal speciation studies showed that most of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn was present in residual fraction while more than half of Cd and Pb was present in non-residual fractions. Additionally, pollution of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn in GVP soil increased their corresponding mobile fractions. Risk assessment using potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code showed that Cd was the major risk contributor. Specifically, Cd generally posed moderate or considerable ecological risk as well as displayed medium or high mobility risk in GVP soil. Thus, great attention should be paid to the contribution of both industrial discharges and intensive farming to soil pollution by trace metals, especially Cd, because of its high mobility risk.

Keywords

Trace metals Greenhouse vegetable production soil Industrial areas BCR procedure Risk assessment 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful for the financial support from the Zhenjiang Science & Technology Program (No. SH2017045), the Natural Science Foundation of the Higher Education Institutions of the Jiangsu Province, China (No. 17KJB210003), the start-up grant from the Jiangsu University (No. 15JDG029), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41473073 and No. 31770394).

Supplementary material

11356_2019_4313_MOESM1_ESM.doc (119 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 119 kb)

References

  1. Adriano DC (2001) Trace elements in terrestrial environments. In: Biogeochemistry, bioavailability, and risks of metals. Springer-Verlag, New York, p 264Google Scholar
  2. Ayres RU (1997) Metals recycling: economic and environmental implications. Resour Conserv Recyl 21:145–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bai LY, Zeng XB, Su SM, Duan R, Wang YN, Gao X (2015) Heavy metal accumulation and source analysis in greenhouse soils of Wuwei District, Gansu Province, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:5359–5369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhuiyan MAH, Parvez L, Islam MA, Dampare SB, Suzuki S (2010) Heavy metal pollution of coal mine-affected agricultural soils in the northern part of Bangladesh. J Hazard Mater 173:384–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bo LJ, Wang DJ, Li TL, Li Y, Zhang G, Wang C, Zhang SQ (2015) Accumulation and risk assessment of heavy metals in water, sediments, and aquatic organisms in rural rivers in the Taihu Lake region, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:6721–6731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang J, Wu X, Wang Y, Meyerson LA, Gu B, Min Y, Xue H, Peng CH, Ge Y (2013) Does growing vegetables in plastic greenhouses enhance regional ecosystem services beyond the food supply? Front Ecol Environ 11:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Critten DL, Bailey BJ (2002) A review of greenhouse engineering developments during the 1990s. Agric For Meteorol 112:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cui HB, Zhou J, Zhao QG, Si YB, Mao JD, Fang GD, Liang JN (2013) Fractions of Cu, Cd, and enzyme activities in a contaminated soil as affected by applications of micro- and nanohydroxyapatite. J Soils Sediments 13:742–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Devi P, Saroha AK (2014) Risk analysis of pyrolyzed biochar made from paper mill effluent treatment plant sludge for bioavailability and eco-toxicity of heavy metals. Bioresour Technol 162:308–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dong Z, Wang L, Tian F (2014) The pollution status and spatial distribution of heavy metals Cd in soil in Zhenjiang Region. Adm Techn Envir Monit 26:35–37 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  11. Gao XL, Chen CTA (2012) Heavy metal pollution status in surface sediments of the coastal Bohai Bay. Water Res 46:1901–1911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gil C, Boluda R, Ramos J (2004) Determination and evaluation of cadmium, lead and nickel in greenhouse soils of Almeria (Spain). Chemosphere 55:1027–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hakanson L (1980) An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water Res 14:975–1001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hang XS, Wang HY, Zhou JM, Ma CL, Du CW, Chen XQ (2009) Risk assessment of potentially toxic element pollution in soils and rice (Oryza sativa) in a typical area of the Yangtze River Delta. Environ Pollut 157:2542–2549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hickman GW (2011) Greenhouse vegetable production statistics: a review of current world-wide data and research reports on the commercial production of greenhouse vegetables. Cuesta Roble Greenhouse Consultants, Mariposa, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  16. Houben D, Sonnet P (2015) Impact of biochar and root-induced changes on metal dynamics in the rhizosphere of Agrostis capillaris and Lupinus albus. Chemosphere 139:644–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Howari FM, Banat KM (2001) Assessment of Fe, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb in the Jordan and Yarmouk River sediments in relation to their physicochemical properties and sequential extraction characterization. Water Air Soil Poll 132:43–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huang SW, Jin JY (2008) Status of heavy metals in agricultural soils as affected by different patterns of land use. Environ Monit Assess 139:317–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Huang B, Pan JJ (2017) Soil series of Jiangsu Province, China. Science Press, Beijing, pp 203–272 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  20. Huang SS, Liao QL, Wu XM, Zhu BW, Yan CY, Zhang XY, Chen B (2006) Survey and assessment of heavy metal pollution of cropland soil in Yangzhong Area Jiangsu Province. Soils 38:483–488 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  21. Jarup L (2003) Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Brit Med Bull 68:167–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jin CW, Zheng SJ, He YF, Zhou GD, Zhou ZX (2005) Lead contamination in tea garden soils and factors affecting its bioavailability. Chemosphere 59:1151–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kirkham MB (2006) Cadmium in plants on polluted soils: effects of soil factors, hyperaccumulation, and amendments. Geoderma 137:19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liao QL, Liu C, Xu Y, Jin Y, Wu YZ, Hua M, Zhu BW, Weng ZH (2011) Geochemical baseline values of elements in soil of Jiangsu Province. Geol Chin 38:1363–1378 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  25. Lin YP, Teng TP, Chang TK (2002) Multivariate analysis of soil heavy metal pollution and landscape pattern in Changhua county in Taiwan. Landscape Urban Plan 62:19–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Manzoor S, Shah MH, Shaheen N, Khalique A, Jaffar M (2006) Multivariate analysis of trace metals in textile effluents in relation to soil and groundwater. J Hazard Mater 137:31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Moore F, Nematollahi MJ, Keshavarzi B (2015) Heavy metals fractionation in surface sediments of Gowatr bay-Iran. Environ Monit Assess 187:4117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Muller G (1969) Index of geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. Geo J 2:109–118Google Scholar
  29. Nannoni F, Protano G (2016) Chemical and biological methods to evaluate the availability of heavy metals in soils of the Siena urban area (Italy). Sci Total Environ 568:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1982) Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds) Methods of soil analysis. American Society of Agronomy, Wisconsin, pp 539–579Google Scholar
  31. Perin G, Craboledda L, Lucchese M, Cirillo R, Dotta L, Zanette ML, Orio AA (1985) Heavy metal speciation in the sediments of northern Adriatic Sea. A new approach for environmental toxicity determination. In: Heavy metals in the environment, vol 2, pp 454–456Google Scholar
  32. Rauret G, Lopez-Sanchez JF, Sahuquillo A, Rubio R, Davidson C, Ure A, Quevauviller P (1999) Improvement of the BCR three step sequential extraction procedure prior to the certification of new sediment and soil reference materials. J Environ Monit 1:57–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rodriguez Martin JA, Ramos-Miras JJ, Boluda R, Gil C (2013) Spatial relations of heavy metals in arable and greenhouse soils of a Mediterranean environment region (Spain). Geoderma 200-201:180–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Saeedi M, Jamshidi-Zanjani A (2015) Development of a new aggregative index to assess potential effect of metals pollution in aquatic sediments. Ecol Indic 58:235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shao X, Cheng HG, Li Q, Lin CY (2013) Anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of cadmium in China. Atmos Environ 79:155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. State Environmental Protection Administration of China (SEPAC) (2006) Environmental quality evaluation standard for farmland of greenhouse vegetable production (HJ/T 333-2006) (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  37. The National Agro-Tech Extension and Service Center (NATESC) (2006) Technical regulations for soil analysis (The second edition). Beijing, China (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  38. Tian HZ, Cheng K, Wang Y, Zhao D, Lu L, Jia WX, Hao JM (2012a) Temporal and spatial variation characteristics of atmospheric emissions of Cd, Cr, and Pb from coal in China. Atmos Environ 50:157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tian HZ, Lu L, Cheng K, Hao JM, Zhao D, Wang Y, Jia WX, Qiu PP (2012b) Anthropogenic atmospheric nickel emissions and its distribution characteristics in China. Sci Total Environ 417-418:148–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tian K, Hu WY, Xing Z, Huang B, Jia MM, Wan MX (2016) Determination and evaluation of heavy metals in soils under two different greenhouse vegetable production systems in eastern China. Chemosphere 165:555–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tian K, Huang B, Xing Z, Hu WY (2017) Geochemical baseline establishment and ecological risk evaluation of heavy metals in greenhouse soils from Dongtai, China. Ecol Indic 72:510–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ure AM, Quevauviller P, Muntau H, Griepink B (1993) Speciation of heavy-metals in soils and sediments—an account of the improvement and harmonization of extraction techniques undertaken under the auspices of the BCR of the Commission-of-the-European-Communities. Int J Environ An Ch 51:135–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wei BG, Yang LS (2010) A review of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils, urban road dusts and agricultural soils from China. Microchem J 94:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Xia LR, Li Y, Meng LL (2017) Analysis of main risk factors and countermeasures for the development of greenhouse vegetable production in Jiangsu Province. Jiangsu Agric Sci 45:332–333 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  45. Xu L, Lu AX, Wang JH, Ma ZH, Pan LG, Feng XY, Luan YX (2015) Accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in Beijing, China. Ecotox Environ Safe 122:214–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yang LQ, Huang B, Hu WY, Chen Y, Mao MC (2013) Assessment and source identification of trace metals in the soils of greenhouse vegetable production in eastern China. Ecotox Environ Safe 97:204–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yang LQ, Huang B, Mao MC, Yao LP, Niedermann S, Hu WY, Chen Y (2016) Sustainability assessment of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:17287–17297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhang XY, Lin FF, Jiang YG, Wang K, Feng XL (2009) Variability of total and available copper concentrations in relation to land use and soil properties in Yangtze River Delta of China. Environ Monit Assess 155:205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhang HD, Huang B, Dong LL, Hu WY, Akhtar MS, Qu MK (2017) Accumulation, sources and health risks of trace metals in elevated geochemical background soils used for greenhouse vegetable production in southwestern China. Ecotox Environ Safe 137:233–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhong XL, Zhou SL, Zhu Q, Zhao QG (2011) Fraction distribution and bioavailability of soil heavy metals in the Yangtze River Delta—a case study of Kunshan City in Jiangsu Province, China. J Hazard Mater 198:13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhou H, Zhou X, Zeng M, Liao BH, Liu L, Yang WT, Wu YM, Qiu QY, Wang YJ (2014) Effects of combined amendments on heavy metal accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted on contaminated paddy soil. Ecotox Environ Safe 101:226–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zia-ur-Rehman M, Khalid H, Akmal F, Ali S, Rizwan M, Qayyum MF, Iqbal M, Khalid MU, Azhar M (2017) Effect of limestone, lignite and biochar applied alone and combined on cadmium uptake in wheat and rice under rotation in an effluent irrigated field. Environ Pollut 227:560–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of the Environment and Safety EngineeringJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Zhenjiang Station of Farmland Quality ProtectionZhenjiangPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations