Detecting antibiotic resistance genes and human potential pathogenic Bacteria in fishmeal by culture-independent method
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Fishmeal is a fundamental ingredient of feedstuffs and is used globally in aquaculture. However, there are few data on the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and human pathogenic bacteria in fishmeal and little understanding of the potential risks of fishmeal application in mariculture systems. Here, we investigated the high-throughput profiles of ARGs and human potential pathogenic bacteria (HPPB) in representative fishmeals (n = 5) and the potential impact of fishmeal on mariculture sediments. ARGs were quantified with microbial DNA quantitative PCR arrays and HPPB were analyzed with Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The impact of the fishmeal on the aquaculture sediments was assessed in a microcosm study. Twenty-four unique ARGs (3–14 per sample) and 25 HPPB species were detected in the fishmeal samples. The most prevalent ARGs were fluoroquinolone resistance genes. The overall abundance of HPPB was 5.0–25.5%, and the HPPB species were dominated by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Clostridium novyi, and Escherichia coli. In the mariculture microcosm sediment, fishmeal significantly increased the normalized abundance of the class I integrase gene (25.4-fold), which plays an important role in the dissemination of ARGs. Dosing with fishmeal also contributed to increases in a resident sulfanilamide resistance gene (sulI gene) and the emergence of a macrolide resistance gene (ermB gene) in the sediment. These findings demonstrated that fishmeal itself is an underestimated reservoir and source of ARGs and HPPBs, and that the application of fishmeal facilitates the dissemination of ARGs in aquaculture sediments. Our results extend our knowledge of the ARGs and HPPB within fishmeal and may provide a feasible and effective approach to the detection of ARGs and HPPB in fishmeal during food safety inspection.
KeywordsFishmeal Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) Human potential pathogenic bacteria (HPPB) Mariculture microcosm
The authors would like to thank Professor Lin Cai at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China, for providing the human pathogenic bacteria 16S rRNA gene database.
This work has been supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2013CB430403).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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