Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 8, pp 7938–7953 | Cite as

A complete assessment on the impact of in-cylinder and external blending of eucalyptus oil on engine’s behavior of a biofuel-based dual fuel engine

  • Senthilkumar MasimalaiEmail author
  • Arulselvan Subramaniyan
Research Article


This work aims at combusting a high viscous high cetane biofuel completely and efficiently under dual combustion mode using another low viscous low cetane biofuel. Maduca longifolia oil (MO) was selected as the base fuel. Combustion was achieved by using EFI (electronic fuel injection) and carburetion of eucalyptus oil at the intake manifold. Eucalyptus oil was also blended externally with MO at different mass ratios and tested. A comparison of engine results was made at 100% and 40% loads (power outputs) for all the attempts. Test results indicated significant improvement in BTE (brake thermal efficiency) with all modes with moderate energy shares of eucalyptus oil. The BTE increased from 25.2% with neat MO operation to a maximum of 29%, 32.3%, and 33.4% respectively with eucalyptus oil addition, carburetion, and EFI modes whereas it was observed as 30.8% with ND (neat diesel). Smoke was reduced with eucalyptus oil addition, carburetion, and EFI at the maximum efficiency points at 100% load. Peak pressure and energy-release rate indicated as superior to neat MO at all modes mainly at 100% load. Thirty percent, 40.2%, and 30.4% respectively with eucalyptus oil addition, carburetion, and EFI were recommended to be the optimal mass shares for 100% load. EFI of eucalyptus oil could be preferred for the highest BTE, lowest smoke, and NO emissions and maximum replacement of MO for the optimal operation of the engine among the methods tested.


Diesel engine Dual fuel mode Electronic fuel injection Engine performance Emissions Combustion 



  1. Allen Jeffrey J, Nandhakumar D, Martin L, Mansoor M (2016) Eucalyptus oil biodiesel a promising fuel for the near future. International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research `(IJSETR) 5(4)Google Scholar
  2. Benajes J, García A, Monsalve-Serrano J, Balloul I, Pradel G (2016) An assessment of the dual-mode reactivity controlled compression ignition/conventional diesel combustion capabilities in a EURO VI medium-duty diesel engine fueled with an intermediate ethanol-gasoline blend and biodieselGoogle Scholar
  3. Benajes J, García A, Monsalve-Serrano J, Boronat V (2017) Achieving clean and efficient engine operation up to full load by combining optimized RCCI and dual-fuel diesel-gasoline combustion strategies. Energy Convers Manag 136:142–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Britto RF, Martins CA (2014) Experimental analysis of a MO engine operating in MO–ethanol. Fuel 134:140–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Devan PK, Mahalakshmi NV (2009) A study of the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a compression ignition engine using methyl ester of paradise oil- eucalyptus oil blends. Appl Energy 86:675–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Devarajan Y, Munuswamy D b, Nagappan BK (2017) Emissions analysis on diesel engine fuelled with cashew nut shell biodiesel and pentanol blends. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(14):13136–13141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dong S, Cheng X, Ou B, Liu T, Wang Z (2016) Experimental and numerical investigations on the cyclic variability of an ethanol/diesel dual-fuel engine. Fuel 186:665–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Geng L, Chen Y, Chen X, Lee C-f F (2018) Study on combustion characteristics and particulate emissions of a common-rail diesel engine fueled with n-butanol and waste cooking oil blends. J Energy Inst xxx(2018):1–12 in PressGoogle Scholar
  9. Ileri E, Atmanli A, Yilmaz N (2016) Comparative analyses of n-butanol rapeseed oil- diesel blend with biodiesel, diesel and biodiesel -diesel fuels in a turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. J Energy Inst 89:586–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Imran A, Varman M, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA (2013) Review on alcohol fumigation on diesel engine: a viable alternative dual fuel technology for satisfactory engine performance and reduction of environment concerning emission. Renew Sust Energ Rev 26:739–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lamani VT, Yadav AK, Narayanappa KG (2017) Influence of low-temperature combustion and dimethyl ether-diesel blends on performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of common rail diesel engine: a CFD study. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(18):15500–15509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Li H, Stuart Neill W, Guo H, Chippior W (2012) The NOx and N2O emission characteristics of an HCCI engine operated with n-heptane. ASME J Energy Resour Technol 134:011101–1Google Scholar
  13. Li G, Zhang C, Li Y (2016) Effects of diesel injection parameters on the rapid combustion and emissions of an HD common-rail diesel engine fuelled with diesel-methanol dual-fuel. Appl Therm Eng 108:1214–1225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li J, Yang W, Zhou D (2017) Review on the management of RCCI engines. Renew Sust Energ Rev 69:65–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mahalingam A, Munuswamy DB, Devarajan Y, Radhakrishnan S (2018) Emission and performance analysis on the effect of exhaust gas recirculation in alcohol-biodiesel aspirated research diesel engine. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:12641–12647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Qi DH, Chen B, Zhang D, Lee CF (2016) Optical study on the combustion characteristics and soot emissions of diesel-soybean biodiesel-butanol blends in a constant volume chamber. J Energy Inst 89:807–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Senthil Kumar M, Arul selvan S (2015) A comparative study on the effect of alcohol addition and induction on performance behavior of a CI engine fueled with “Madhuca Indica” as fuel. Technical papers of Society of Automotive Engineers. Paper no. 2015-01-0853Google Scholar
  18. Senthil Kumar M, Ramesh A, Nagalingam B (2003) An experimental comparison of methods to use methanol and Jatropha oil in a compression ignition engine. Journal of Biomass and Bio Energy 25:309–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Senthilkumar M, Arul K, Sasikumar N (2018) Impact of oxygen enrichment on the engine’s perfromance, emission and combustion behavior of a biofuel based reactivity controlled compression ignition engine. J Energy Inst 2018 (In press)Google Scholar
  20. Tamilvendhan D, Ilangovan V, Karthikeyan R (2011) Optimisation of engine operating parameters for eucalyptus oil mixed diesel fuelled DI diesel engine using Taguchi method. J Eng Appl Sci 6:6Google Scholar
  21. Tong L, Wang H, Zheng Z, Reitz R, Yao M (2016) Experimental study of RCCI combustion and load extension in a compression ignition engine fuelled with gasoline and PODE. Fuel 181:878–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tsang KS, Zhang ZH, Cheung CS, Chan TL (2010) Reducing emissions of a MO engine using fumigation ethanol and a MO oxidation catalyst. Energy Fuel 24:6156–6165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tutak W (2014) Bioethanol E85 as a fuel for dual fuel MO engine. Energy Convers Manag 86:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Verma P, Sharma MP, Dwivedi G (2016) Potential use of eucalyptus biodiesel in compressed ignition engine. Egypt J Pet 25:91–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wang LJ, Song RZ, Zou HB, Liu SH, Zhou LB (2008) Study on combustion characteristics of a methanol–MO dual-fuel compression ignition engine. Proc IMechE 222: 619–627, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering,
  26. Wei H, Yao C, Pan W, Han G, Dou Z, Wu T, Liu M, Wang B, Gao J, Chen C, Shi J (2017) Experimental investigations of the effects of pilot injection on combustion and gaseous emission characteristics of diesel/methanol dual fuel engine. Fuel 188:427–441 Energy Conversion and Management 123: 381–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhang ZH, Cheung CS, Yao CD (2013) Influence of fumigation methanol on the combustion and particulate emissions of a MO engine. Fuel 111:442–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zheng Z, Wang XF, Zhong X, Hu B, Liu H, Yao M (2016) Experimental study on the combustion and emissions fueling biodiesel/n-butanol, biodiesel/ethanol and biodiesel/ 2,5-dimethylfuran on a diesel engine. Energy 115:539–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Senthilkumar Masimalai
    • 1
    Email author
  • Arulselvan Subramaniyan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Automobile Engineering, Madras Institute of Technology CampusAnna UniversityChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations