Biodegradation of anthracene and different PAHs by a yellow laccase from Leucoagaricus gongylophorus
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Laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus act in lignocellulose degradation and detoxification processes. Therefore, the use of L. gongylophorus laccase (Lac1Lg) was proposed in this work for degradation of anthracene and others polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons without the use of mediators. Degradation reactions were performed in buffer aqueous solution with 10 ppm of anthracene and other PAHs, Tween-20 in 0.25% v/v and a laccase preparation of 50 U. The optimum condition (pH 6.0 and 30 °C) was determined by response surface methodology with an excellent coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.97 and an adjusted coefficient of determination (R2adj) of 0.93. In addition, the employment of the mediator ABTS decreased the anthracene biodegradation from 44 ± 1% to 30 ± 1%. This optimum pH of 6.0 suggests that the reaction occurs by a hydrogen atom transfer mechanism. Additionally, in 24 h Lac1Lg biodegraded 72 ± 1% anthracene, 40 ± 3% fluorene and 25 ± 3% phenanthrene. The yellow laccase from L. gongylophorus biodegraded anthracene and produced anthrone and anthraquinone, which are interesting compounds for industrial applications. Moreover, this enzyme also biodegraded the PAHs phenanthrene and fluorene justifying the study of Lac1Lg for bioremediation of these compounds in the environment.
KeywordsPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Organic pollutant Fluorene Phenanthrene Anthraquinone Anthrone
PTLI and WGB (grant no. 141656/2014-0) thank to Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) and to Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for their scholarships, respectively. The authors also thank CNPq (grant no. 558062/2009-1) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP, grant no. 2012/19934-0) for financial support.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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