Monitoring of environmental persistent organic pollutants in hair samples collected from wild terrestrial mammals of Primorsky Krai, Russia
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) constitute a wide range of chemicals. Their release into the environment has raised great concern due to their potentially harmful impact in humans and wildlife species. The aim of this current study was to detect selected POPs in hair samples of wild terrestrial mammals from Primorsky Krai, Russia, so as to assess potential environmental exposure. The tested wild species were leopard cat, musk deer, wolf, amur hedgehog, and raccoon dog. The targeted organochlorines were hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDTs (opDDE, ppDDE, and opDDD), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (acenaphylene (ACEN), fluorene (FLU), anthracene (ANTH) phenathrene (PHEN), and pyrene (PYR)). The detection of POPs was conducted in hair samples by a one-step hair extraction method, by using a headspace solid-phase microextraction technique (HS-SPME) and analyzed then by GC-MS. The majority of the wild animal hair samples were found positive in all tested pollutants. More specifically, the percentage of positive hair samples for HCB was 93.3% and for DDTs, PCBs, and PAHs, 20.0 to 100.0%, 6.7 to 100.0%, and 75.0 to 100.0%, respectively. DDT, PCB, and PAH detection ranged from 1.26 to 52.06 pg mg−1, 0.73 to 31.34 pg mg−1, and 2.59 to 35.00 pg mg−1, respectively. The highest mean concentration levels of all tested pollutants were found for musk deer (PCBs 12.41 pg mg−1, DDTs 21.87 pg mg−1, PAHs 22.12 pg mg−1) compared to the other wild species. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that provides results regarding contamination in different terrestrial mammals by POP exposure. The use of hair as a matrix is proven to be an effective tool for nondestructive biological monitoring of POP contamination in terrestrial ecosystems.
KeywordsHair POPs Wild terrestrial mammals HS-SPME–GC-MS Biomonitoring Russia
This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 18-14-00120).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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