Isolation, characterization, and therapeutic activity of bergenin from marlberry (Ardisia colorata Roxb.) leaf on diabetic testicular complications in Wistar albino rats

  • Sanasam Sanjeev
  • Meesala Krishna Murthy
  • Maibam Sunita Devi
  • Maurya Khushboo
  • Zothanmawii Renthlei
  • Kalibulla Syed Ibrahim
  • Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar
  • Vikas Kumar Roy
  • Guruswami GurusubramanianEmail author
Research Article


Bergenin is one of the phytochemical constituents in marlberry (Ardisia colorata Roxb.) having antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties. A. colorata has been used as an herbal medicine in Southeast Asia particularly in Northeast India to treat diabetes. Bergenin was isolated from methanol extract of A. colorata leaf (MEACL) by column chromatography and TLC profiling. Characterization and structural validation of bergenin were performed by spectroscopic analyses. A LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitation of bergenin and validated as per the guidelines of FDA and EMA. The validated method was successfully utilized to quantify bergenin concentration in MEACL samples. Therapeutic efficacy of bergenin was investigated on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by following standard protocols. Bergenin supplementation significantly improved the physiological and metabolic processes and in turn reverses diabetic testicular dysfunction via increasing serum testosterone concentrations and expression pattern of PCNA, improving histopathological and histomorphometric manifestations, modulating spermatogenic events and germ cell proliferation, restoring sperm quality, reducing sperm DNA damage, and balancing the antioxidant enzymes levels. Hence, A. colorata leaf is one of the alternate rich resources of bergenin and could be used as a therapeutic agent for diabetic testicular complications.


Coral berry Trihydroxybenzoic acid glycoside Structure identification Assay validation Hyperglycemia-induced testis dysfunction Sperm quality 


B100, B200, and B400

Diabetic rats treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of bergenin isolated from Ardisia colorata methanol leaf extract, respectively


Ardisia colorata


Alanine aminotransferase


Abnormal DNA fluoresce, yellow or red


Normal DNA fluoresce, green


Aspartate aminotransferase


Healthy untreated normal control (0.5% carboxy methyl cellulose)


Carboxy methyl cellulose


Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals


Diabetic control (streptozotocin, 60 mg/kg)


Detrended correspondence analysis


Distortedness enhancement by polarization transfer


DNA fragmentation index


Diabetes mellitus


Daily sperm production


Daily sperm production relative to testis weight


European Medicine Agency


Food and Drug Agency


Fasting plasma glucose


Diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (0.1 mg/kg)


Glutathione S-transferase


High-performance liquid chromatography


Johnsen’s testicular biopsy score


Liquid chromatography grade


Liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry


Limit of detection


Limit of quantification


Multivariate analysis of variance


Malondialdehyde equivalents


Methanol extract of Ardisia colorata leaf


Multiple-reaction monitoring


Mean seminiferous tubule diameter


Mizoram University Animal Ethical Committee


Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development


Principal component analysis


Proliferating cell nuclear antigen


Quality control


Reactive oxygen species


Relative standard deviation


Standard deviation


Superoxide dismutase




Tubule differentiation index


Thin layer chromatography



The authors acknowledge the instrumentation facility in Mizoram University funded by Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, New Delhi - Bioinformatics Infrastructure Facility (No. BT/BI/12/060/2012(NERBIF-MUA) and State Biotech Hub Programme (No. BT/04/NE/2009).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_4139_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.7 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 1726 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanasam Sanjeev
    • 1
  • Meesala Krishna Murthy
    • 1
  • Maibam Sunita Devi
    • 1
  • Maurya Khushboo
    • 1
  • Zothanmawii Renthlei
    • 1
  • Kalibulla Syed Ibrahim
    • 2
  • Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar
    • 2
  • Vikas Kumar Roy
    • 1
  • Guruswami Gurusubramanian
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyMizoram Central UniversityAizawlIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyMizoram Central UniversityAizawlIndia

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