Advertisement

Anthropogenic impacts in the Changbai Mountain region of NE China over the last 150 years: geochemical records of peat and altitude effects

  • Kunshan BaoEmail author
  • Guoping Wang
  • Lin Jia
  • Wei Xing
Research Article
  • 72 Downloads

Abstract

Geochemical records from peatlands are important tools for the interpretation of environmental signals preserved in the peat and the understanding anthropogenic impacts on remote mountain regions. In this paper, six 210Pb-dated peat cores located at 500–1900 m above sea level (asl) in the Changbai Mountains were used to reconstruct the pollution history over the past 150 years in northeastern (NE) China. The cores physicochemical parameters and 10 key chemical elements were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Results from loss on ignition (LOI), total organic carbon (TOC), and lithogenic element (Ti, Fe, and Mn) analysis show that the peatlands (Ch, Yc1 and Jb) over 900 m asl are ombrotrophic and the lower altitude peatlands (Dng, Jc, and Ha) are minerotrophic. There is a decreasing trend of trace element distribution with the altitude, mainly due to the local source input. The content of the magnetic particles and trace elements (Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) as well as their accumulation rates document 150 years of pollution history in the Changbai Mountain region. There is a significant elevated pattern of the geochemical records after the New China, which might mark the start date of Anthropocene since the 1950s in this region. The peatlands at the lower altitude (i.e., Dng and Ha) record the earliest fingerprints of metal contamination due to the starting period of massive reclaiming and immigrating in the Changbai Mountain region. The major increase of trace elements since the 1980s probably suggests a significant deterioration of the local environment due to the fast industrial and urbanization development after the Reform and Opening up in China.

Keywords

Peatlands Anthropocene Trace element Environmental implication Changbai Mountain 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Dr. Steve Pratte and Dr. Lydia Mackenzie for their useful comments and excellent language polishing. We are also grateful to two anonymous reviewers and the editors for their constructive comments that helped to considerably improve the quality of the manuscript.

Funding information

This work was financially supported by the NSFC-Belmont Forum Joint Research Project (no. 4166114404), the NSFC-CNRS Joint Research Project (no. 41611130163), and the NIGLAS Cross-functional Innovation Teams (no. NIGLAS2016TD01). Wei Xing is grateful to the Nanhu Scholars Program for Young Scholars of Xinyang Normal University.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_4138_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.6 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1638 kb)

References

  1. Appleby PG (2008) Three decades of dating recent sediments by fallout radionuclides: a review. Holocene 18:83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bacardit M, Camarero L (2010) Atmospherically deposited major and trace elements in the winter snowpack along a gradient of altitude in the Central Pyrenees: the seasonal record of long-range fluxes over SW Europe. Atmos Environ 44:582–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bao K, Jia L, Lu X, Wang G (2010a) Grain-size characteristics of sediment in Daniugou peatland in Changbai Mountains, Northeast China: implications for atmospheric dust deposition. Chin Geogr Sci 20:498–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bao K, Shen J, Wang G, Le Roux G (2015a) Atmospheric deposition history of trace metals and metalloids for the last 200 years recorded by three peat cores in Great Hinggan Mountain. Northeast China Atmosphere 6:380–409Google Scholar
  5. Bao K, Shen J, Wang G, Tserenpil S (2016) Anthropogenic, detritic and atmospheric soil-derived sources of lead in an alpine poor fen in northeast China. J Mt Sci 13:255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bao K, Wang G, Pratte S, Mackenzie L, Klamt AM (2018) Historical variation in the distribution of trace and major elements in a poor fen of Fenghuang Mountain, NE China. Geochem Int 56:1003–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bao K, Wang G, Xing W, Shen J (2015b) Accumulation of organic carbon over the past 200 years in alpine peatlands, northeast China. Environ Earth Sci 73:7489–7503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bao K, Xia W, Lu X, Wang G (2010b) Recent atmospheric lead deposition recorded in an ombrotrophic peat bog of Great Hinggan Mountains, Northeast China, from Pb-210 and Cs-137 dating. J Environ Radioact 101:773–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bao K, Yu X, Jia L, Wang G (2010c) Recent carbon accumulation in Changbai mountain peatlands, Northeast China. Mt Res Dev 30:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bindler R (2006) Mired in the past - looking to the future: geochemistry of peat and the analysis of past environmental changes. Glob Planet Chang 53:209–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bing H, Wu Y, Zhou J, Rui L, Ji L, Dong Y (2016) Vegetation and cold trapping modulating elevation-dependent distribution of trace metals in soils of a high mountain in Eastern Tibetan Plateau. Sci Rep 6:24081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Charman DJ (2002) Peatlands and environmental change. Wiley:301Google Scholar
  13. Crutzen PJ, Stoermer EF (2000) The “Anthropocene”. IGBP News-letter 41: 17-18.Google Scholar
  14. De Vleeschouwer F, Le Roux G, Shotyk W (2010) Peat as an archive of atmospheric pollution and environmental change: a case study of lead in Europe. PAGES magazine 18:20–22Google Scholar
  15. Dearing JA, Battarbee RW, Dikau R, Larocque I, Oldfield F (2006) Human-environment interactions: learning from the past. Reg Environ Chang 6:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ferrat M, Weiss DJ, Spiro B, Large D (2012) The inorganic geochemistry of a peat deposit on the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and insights into changing atmospheric circulation in central Asia during the Holocene. Geochim Cosmochim Ac 91:7–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł B, De Vleeschouwer F, Mattielli N, Fagel N, Palowski B, Pazdur A, Smieja-Król B (2018) Record of Anthropocene pollution sources of lead in disturbed peatlands from Southern Poland. Atmos Environ 179:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł B, Smieja-Król B, Frontasyeva M, Słowiński M, Marcisz K, Lapshina E, Gilbert D, Buttler A, Jassey VEJ, Kaliszan K (2016) Anthropogenic- and natural sources of dust in peatland during the Anthropocene. Sci Rep 6(38731).  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep38731
  19. Gao C, Knorr KH, Yu Z, He J, Zhang S, Lu X, Wang G (2016) Black carbon deposition and storage in peat soils of the Changbai Mountain, China. Geoderma 273:98–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gerdol R, Bragazza L (2006) Effects of altitude on element accumulation in alpine moss. Chemosphere 64:810–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hansson SV, Claustres A, Probst A, De Vleeschouwer F, Baron S, Galop D, Mazier F, Le Roux G (2017a) Atmospheric and terrigenous metal accumulation over 3000 years in a French mountain catchment: local vs distal influences. Anthropocene 19:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hansson SV, Sonke J, Galop D, Bareille G, Jean S, Le Roux G (2017b) Transfer of marine mercury to mountain lakes. Sci Rep 7:12719.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13001-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hong YT, Jiang HB, Liu TS, Zhou LP, Beer J, Li HD, Leng XT, Hong B, Qin XG (2000) Response of climate to solar forcing recorded in a 6000-year δ18O time-series of Chinese peat cellulose. Holocene 10:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hososhima M, Kaneyasu N (2015) Altitude-dependent distribution of ambient gamma dose rates in a mountainous area of Japan caused by the fukushima nuclear accident. Environ Sci Technol 49:3341–3348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jia L, Wang G, Liu J (2006a) Distribution and implicaitons of major and trace elements in peat profiles of Yuanchi, Changbai Mountain. J Mt Sci 24:662–666 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  26. Jia L, Wang G, Liu J (2006b) Distribution and implications of the elements of peat profiles in the Jinbei bog of the Changbai Mountains. Wetland Sci 4:187–192 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  27. Kalina MF, Stopper S, Zambo E, Puxbaum H (2002) Altitude-dependent wet, dry and occult nitrogen deposition in an Alpine Region. Environ Sci Pollut Res 9:16–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kuang W, Zhang S, Zhang Y, Li Y, Hou W (2006) Change of forest landscape and its driving mechnism during the last fifty years in the eastern mountain area of Jilin Province. J Beijing Forestry University 28:38–45 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  29. Le Roux G, Hansson SV, Claustres A (2016) Chapter 3 - Inorganic chemistry in the mountain critical zone: are the mountain water towers of contemporary society under threat by trace contaminants? In: Greenwood GB, Shroder JF (eds) Developments in Earth Surface Processes. Elsevier, pp 131–154Google Scholar
  30. Le Roux G, Pourcelot L, Masson O, Duffa C, Vray F, Renaud P (2008) Aerosol deposition and origin in French mountains estimated with soil inventories of 210Pb and artificial radionuclides. Atmos Environ 42:1517–1524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lee J, Tallis J (1973) Regional and historical aspects of lead pollution in Britain. Nature 245:216–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. LeNoir JS, McConnell LL, Fellers GM, Cahill TM, Seiber JN (1999) Summertime transport of current-use pesticides from California’s Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 18:2715–2722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Li R, Bing H, Wu Y, Zhou J, Xiang Z (2018) Altitudinal patterns and controls of trace metal distribution in soils of a remote high mountain, Southwest China. Environ Geochem Health 40:505–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Li Y, Ma C, Zhu C, Huang R, Zheng C (2016) Historical anthropogenic contributions to mercury accumulation recorded by a peat core from Dajiuhu montane mire, central China. Environ Pollut 216:332–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liu H, Gao C, Wei C, Wang C, Yu X, Wang G (2018a) Evaluating the timing of the start of the Anthropocene from Northeast China: applications of stratigraphic indicators. Ecol Indic 84:738–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Liu J, Wang Z, Zhao H, Peros M, Yang Q, Liu S, Li H, Wang S, Bu Z (2018b) Mercury and arsenic in the surface peat soils of the Changbai Mountains, northeastern China: distribution, environmental controls, sources, and ecological risk assessment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:34595–34,609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Longman J, Veres D, Finsinger W, Ersek V (2018) Exceptionally high levels of lead pollution in the Balkans from the Early Bronze Age to the Industrial Revolution. PNAS 115:E5661–E5668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Madsen P (1981) Peat bog records of atmospheric mercury deposition. Nature 293:127–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Martinez Cortizas A, Pontevedra-Pombal X, Garcia-Rodeja E, Novoa-Munoz JC, Shotyk W (1999) Mercury in a Spanish peat bog: archive of climate change and atmospheric metal deposition. Science 284:939–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Marx SK, Rashid S, Stromsoe N (2016) Global-scale patterns in anthropogenic Pb contamination reconstructed from natural archives. Environ Pollut 213:283–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McConnell JR, Wilson AI, Stohl A, Arienzo MM, Chellman NJ, Eckhardt S, Thompson EM, Pollard AM, Steffensen JP (2018) Lead pollution recorded in Greenland ice indicates European emissions tracked plagues, wars, and imperial expansion during antiquity. PNAS 115:5726–5731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Monna F, Galop D, Carozza L, Tual M, Beyrie A, Marembert F, Chateau C, Dominik J, Grousset F (2004) Environmental impact of early Basque mining and smelting recorded in a high ash minerogenic peat deposit. Sci Total Environ 327:197–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Moreno A, Svensson A, Brooks SJ, Connor S, Engels S, Fletcher W, Genty D, Heiri O, Labuhn I, Perşoiu A, Peyron O, Sadori L, Valero-Garcés B, Wulf S, Zanchetta G (2014) A compilation of Western European terrestrial records 60–8 ka BP: towards an understanding of latitudinal climatic gradients. Quat Sci Rev 106:167–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Niu H, Zhang Y (1980) Mire in Northeast China. Resources Sci 2:53–65 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  45. Orru H, Orru M (2006) Sources and distribution of trace elements in Estonian peat. Glob Planet Chang 53:249–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pratte S, Bao K, Shen J, Mackenzie L, Klamt A, Wang G, Xing W (2018) Recent atmospheric metal deposition in peatlands of northeast China: a review. Sci Total Environ 626C:1284–1294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rausch N, Nieminen T, Ukonmaanaho L, Le Roux G, Krachler M, Cheburkin AK, Bonani G, Shotyk W (2005) Comparison of atmospheric deposition of copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc, and cadmium recorded by Finnish peat cores with monitoring data and emission records. Environ Sci Technol 39:5989–5998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schmeller DS, Loyau A, Bao K, Brack W, Chatzinotas A, De Vleeschouwer F, Friesen J, Gandois L, Hansson SV, Haver M, Le Roux G, Shen J, Teisserenc R, Vredenburg VT (2018) People, pollution and pathogens – global change impacts in mountain freshwater ecosystems. Sci Total Environ 622-623:756–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Shotyk W (1996) Natural and anthropogenic enrichments of As, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn in ombrotrophic versus minerotrophic peat bog profiles, Jura Mountains, Switzerland. Water Air Soil Pollut 90:375–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shotyk W, Weiss D, Appleby P, Cheburkin A, Frei R, Gloor M, Kramers JD, Reese S, Van Der Knaap W (1998) History of atmospheric lead deposition since 12,370 14C yr BP from a peat bog, Jura Mountains. Switzerland Sci 281:1635–1640Google Scholar
  51. Smieja-Król B, Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł B, Sikorski J, Palowski B (2010) Heavy metal behaviour in peat – a mineralogical perspective. Sci Total Environ 408:5924–5931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Swain E, Engstrom DR, Brigham M, Henning T, Brezonik P (1992) Increasing rates of atmospheric mercury deposition in Midcontinental North America. Science 257:784–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tolonen K (1984) Interpretation of changes in the ash content of ombrotrophic peat layers. Bull Geol Soc Finl 1:207–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wang J, Zhang X, Liu L, Fang S, Jiang W (2016) LUCC driving force and its environmental effects in Changbai Mountain during Qing dynasty. Chin Agricul Sci Bullet 32:124–131 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  55. Wang Y, Li C, Wei H, Shan X (2003) Late Pliocene–recent tectonic setting for the Tianchi volcanic zone, Changbai Mountains, northeast China. J Asian Earth Sci 21:1159–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wardenaar ECP (1987) A new hand tool for cutting peat profiles. Canadian J Botany Sci 65:1772–1773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Waters CN, Zalasiewicz J, Summerhayes C, Fairchild IJ, Rose NL, Loader NJ, Shotyk W, Cearreta A, Head MJ, Syvitski JPM, Williams M, Wagreich M, Barnosky AD, An Z, Leinfelder R, Jeandel C, Gałuszka A, Ivar do Sul JA, Gradstein F, Steffen W, McNeill JR, Wing S, Poirier C, Edgeworth M (2018) Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Anthropocene Series: where and how to look for potential candidates. Earth-Sci Rev 178:379–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Williams M, Zalasiewicz J, Waters CN, Edgeworth M, Bennett C, Barnosky AD, Ellis EC, Ellis MA, Cearreta A, Haff PK (2016) The Anthropocene: a conspicuous stratigraphical signal of anthropogenic changes in production and consumption across the biosphere. Earths Future 4:34–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Xing W, Bao K, Gallego-Sala AV, Charman DJ, Zhang Z, Gao C, Lu X, Wang G (2015) Climate controls on carbon accumulation in peatlands of Northeast China. Quat Sci Rev 115:78–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Xu Q, Wang Z, Xu Q, Xia Y (1994) Pollen analysis of peat marsh in birch forest, the Changbai Mountains and the significance. Sci Geogr Sin 14:186–192 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  61. Yu X, Zhou W, Liu X, Xian F, Liu Z, Zheng Y, An Z (2010) Peat records of human impacts on the atmosphere in Northwest China during the late Neolithic and Bronze Ages. Palaeog Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 286:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zalasiewicz J, Waters CN, Summerhayes CP, Wolfe AP, Barnosky AD, Cearreta A, Crutzen P, Ellis E, Fairchild IJ, Gałuszka A (2017) The working group on the Anthropocene: summary of evidence and interim recommendations. Anthropocene 19:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zhang H, Yin R, Feng X, Sommar J, Anderson CWN, Sapkota A, Fu X, Larssen T (2013) Atmospheric mercury inputs in montane soils increase with elevation: evidence from mercury isotope signatures. Sci Rep 3(3322).  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep03322
  64. Zhang S, Zhang Y, Li Y, Chang L (2006) Spatial-temporal characterization analysis of LUCC in NE China. Scienence Press, Beijing, p 43 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  65. Zu W, Ma X, Wang R (1985) The main properties and regional diversity of peat in China. Sci Geogr Sin 5:38–45 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of GeographySouth China Normal UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and AgroecologyChinese Academy of SciencesChangchunChina
  3. 3.Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental ProtectionBeijingChina
  4. 4.College of Geographic SciencesXinyang Normal UniversityXinyangChina

Personalised recommendations