Particulate matters and gaseous pollutants in indoor environment and Association of ultra-fine particulate matters (PM1) with lung function
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Real-time particulate matters (PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM7, PM10, and TSP) with AEROCET 531S (USA), gaseous pollutants (NO2 and TVOC) with Aeroquel 500 gas sampler (NZ) were measured from the indoor air of houses at four residential locations in Dhaka, Bangladesh. PM10 samples were collected on quartz filters with a dual channel dust sampler (IPM-FDS 2510, India) for selected trace metal determination from five houses of Dhaka. Respiratory function of the occupants was assessed by using a peak expiratory flow meter (Rossmax PF 120). Mean PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations were 46.1 ± 13.4, 76.0 ± 16.2, and 203.9 ± 44.8 μg m−3, respectively. Higher enrichment factors of Pb, Zn, and Ni were found for traffic, industrial, and constructional activities. The correlation between indoor and outdoor PM2.5 (R2 = 0.42) and ratios (I/O < 1) suggesting indoor air was effected by outdoor air. The concentration of NO2 (0.076 ± 0.007 ppm) and TVOC (90.0 ± 46.0 ppm) was found above than other studies. The average total hazard ratio (THR) in Dhaka was 9.06 and has the highest exposure to air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2) in Khilkhet (THR 10.1) residents. A negative association between ultra-fine particles (PM1) and peak flow rate measurements of the residents living in these houses indicates that inhalations of ultra-fine particles has great influence on the reduced lung efficiency.
KeywordsIndoor air quality Particulate matter NO2 and TVOC Hazard ratio indicator Peak flow rate Lung function
Authors acknowledge the owner and residents of the houses who were helping during sampling and also participating in the lung function test experiments. Centre for Advanced Research in Sciences (CARS) for helping with trace metal analysis.
Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Education, The Government Republic of Bangladesh (Project no.: PS 14138).
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