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Occurrence, fate, and transport of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) in an alkaline rhizosphere soil-plant (Maize, Zea mays L.) system: the role of Bacillus subtilis

  • Xiaoping LiEmail author
  • Yue Cai
  • Dongying Liu
  • Yuwei Ai
  • Meng Zhang
  • Yu Gao
  • Yuchao Zhang
  • Xu Zhang
  • Xiangyang Yan
  • Bin Liu
  • Hongtao Yu
  • Howard W. Mielke
Research Article

Abstract

Utilization of microbes is one of the most promising methods to remediate potentially toxic metals (PTMs) from soil. In this study, a systematic investigation was conducted to study the influence of Bacillus subtilis on PTMs occurrence, fractionation, translocation, and accumulation in the rhizosphere soil of Maize (Zea mays L.) in pot experiments. B. subtilis showed strong effects on the fate and mobility of Pb, Sb, Ni, Zn, Cu, and Cr, and it also affected PTMs’ distribution in the rhizosphere soil, maize growth, and microbial community structure. Results showed that it was easier for Zn to accumulate in maize roots than other PTMs. According to chemical fractionation, B. subtilis tended to immobilize Pb, Sb, Ni, Zn, and Cu in the rhizosphere soil. Compared with other PTMs, Cr tended to be more available and more mobile, which indicated a higher health risk to the eco-environment. These findings suggested that B. subtilis could be used as a geomicrobiological stabilizer to immobilize PTMs (Pb, Sb, Ni, Cu, Zn) in alkaline soils and decrease their uptake by plants, thus reducing the risks of a potential transfer into the food chain.

Keywords

Bacillus subtilis Fate Maize (Zea mays Zhengdan 958) Potentially toxic metals (PTMs) Rhizosphere soil 

Notes

Authors’ contributions

Xiaoping Li conceived and designed the experiments. Dongying Liu performed the experiments, and Yue Cai organized and wrote the manuscript, Howard W. Mielke revised the manuscript. Yuwei Ai, Meng Zhang, Yu Gao, Yuchao Zhang, Xu Zhang, Xiangyang Yan, Bin Liu, and Hongtao Yu contributed the sampling, reagents, materials, and data analysis.

Funding information

The authors received financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41471420, 41877517), the project of International Science and Technology Innovation and Cooperation Base of Shaanxi Province (2018GHJD-16), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province (2015JM4124), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (GK201701010, GK 200902024, and GK201402032).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_4031_MOESM1_ESM.docx (133 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 133 kb)
11356_2018_4031_MOESM2_ESM.docx (14 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 14.4 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoping Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yue Cai
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dongying Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yuwei Ai
    • 1
    • 2
  • Meng Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yu Gao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yuchao Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xu Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiangyang Yan
    • 2
    • 3
  • Bin Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hongtao Yu
    • 2
    • 4
  • Howard W. Mielke
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science, School of Geography and TourismShaanxi Normal UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.International Joint Research Centre of Shaanxi Province for Pollutant Exposure and Eco-environmental HealthXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.School of Chemistry & Chemical EngineeringShaanxi Normal UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.School of Computer, Mathematical and Natural SciencesMorgan State UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Department of Pharmacology, School of MedicineTulane UniversityNew OrleansUSA

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