Effect of grape seed extract on maternal toxicity and in utero development in mice treated with zearalenone
The aims of this study were to determine the polyphone content of grape seed extract (GSE) and to assess their protective effects against zearalenone (ZEN)-induced maternal toxicity and in utero development defects in mice. Five groups of pregnant mice were treated orally during days 6–13 of gestation as follows: control group, corn oil as vehicle (0.1 ml/mice)-treated group, ZEN-treated group (25 mg/kg b.w), GSE-treated group (150 mg/kg b.w.), and ZEN plus GSE-treated group. All animals were sacrificed on the 19th day of gestation and samples of bone marrow were collected for the micronucleus assay. The maternal and developmental toxicity were carried out. The HPLC analyses revealed that GES is rich in gallic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, quercetin, and coumaric acid. ZEN administration resulted in severe maternal and developmental toxicity which included an increase of micronuclei formation in bone marrow, decreased maternal weight gain, and litter weight. It also induces fetal growth retardation, increased number of the aborted dams and resorbed fetuses, abnormality of fetal bone ossification, and number of fetuses with a hematoma. GSE showed positive effects on the pregnant mice and the developing fetuses. Moreover, it counteracted the detrimental effects of ZEN in dams and fetuses. It could be concluded that polyphenols in GSE are a promising candidate to protect against ZEN toxicity in highly endemic areas.
KeywordsZearalenone Grape seed extract Genotoxicity Teratogenicity Developmental toxicity
This work was supported by King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology, grant # 45-35-T.A.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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