Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 10, pp 9469–9479 | Cite as

Low digestibility of phytate phosphorus, their impacts on the environment, and phytase opportunity in the poultry industry

  • Farzana Abbasi
  • Tahmina Fakhur-un-Nisa
  • Jingbo Liu
  • Xuegang LuoEmail author
  • Imtiaz Hussain Raja AbbasiEmail author
Review Article


Phosphorus is an essential macro-mineral nutrient for poultry, needed for the body growth, development of bones, genomic function, good quality flesh, and eggs production. The imbalance of organic phosphorus sources in the diet mostly affect the phosphorus digestibility, reduces the poultry performance and health, and increases the environmental pollution burden. A study was reviewed to estimate the low phytate phosphorus digestibility of ingredients in poultry diet and their impacts on environmental ecosystem and opportunity of phytase supplementation. Plant ingredients mostly used in poultry diets are rich in phytate phosphorus. The phytate phosphorus digestibility and utilization is low in the gut of birds which leads to decrease other nutrients digestibility and increase excessive excretion of phosphorus with additional nutrients in the manure. When that manure applied to the lands containing excessive residual phosphorus and additional nutrients which pollute soil, groundwater disturbed the entire ecosystem. This issue is developed by poultry due to lack of digestive enzyme phytase which promotes the phytate phosphorus during digestion and reduces the excessive losses of phosphorus in excreta. To overcome this matter, the addition of mostly exogenous phospho-hydrolytic phytase enzymes in the diet, i.e. Escherichia coli, Peniophora lycii, Aspergillus niger, and Ficum, are the possible ways to increase the digestibility and utilization of phytate phosphorus and promote the stepwise release of phosphorus from phytate and significantly decrease phosphorus excretion. The aim of this review is to highlight the role of phytase supplementation in the poultry feeding, improvement of phytate phosphorus digestibility with performance, and reduction of phosphorus pollution from the environment.


Environmental pollution Phytate phosphorus Phytate digestibility Poultry manure Phytase supplementation 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Life Science and EngineeringSouthwest University of Science and TechnologyMianyangChina
  2. 2.Institute of ChemistryShah Abdul Latif UniversityKhairpurPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Production and Technology, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal SciencesCUVASBahawalpurPakistan

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