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Convergence in CO 2 emissions, carbon footprint and ecological footprint: evidence from OECD countries

  • Sakiru Adebola SolarinEmail author
Research Article
  • 62 Downloads

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to augment the existing literature on convergence of CO2 emissions, by adding carbon footprint per capita and ecological footprint per capita to the convergence debate. We use the residual augmented least squares regression to examine the stochastic convergence of the environmental indices in 27 OECD countries. Furthermore, in contrast to the previous studies which mainly used the conventional beta-convergence approach to examine conditional convergence, we use a beta-convergence method that is capable of identifying the actual number of countries that contribute to conditional convergence. The sigma-convergence of the environmental indices is also examined. The results suggest that conditional convergence exists in 12 countries for CO2 emissions per capita, 15 countries for carbon footprint per capita and also 13 countries for ecological footprint per capita. There is evidence for sigma-convergence for all the three indicators. The policy implications of the results are discussed in the body of the paper.

Keywords

CO2 emissions Ecological footprint Carbon footprint Conditional convergence Sigma-convergence 

Notes

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of BusinessMultimedia UniversityMalaccaMalaysia

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