Kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of ciprofloxacin by activated carbon produced from Jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana)
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High specific surface area activated carbon prepared from endocarp of Jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana) (ACJ) was used for ciprofloxacin (CIP) antibiotic removal from aqueous effluents. The activated carbon (AC) was characterized via scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, N2 adsorption/desorption, and pH value at the zero-charge point. Avrami kinetic model was the one that best fit the experimental results in comparison to the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The equilibrium data obeyed the Liu isotherm equation, showing a maximum adsorption capacity of 335.8 mg g−1 at 40 °C. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicate that the adsorption of CIP was spontaneous and endothermic at all studied temperatures. Also, the free enthalpy changes (∆H° = 3.34 kJ mol−1) suggested physical adsorption between CIP and ACJ. Simulated effluents were utilized to check the potential of the ACJ for wastewater purification. The highly efficient features enable the activated carbon prepared from endocarp of Jerivá, an attractive carbon adsorbent, to remove ciprofloxacin from wastewaters.
KeywordsEmerging contaminants Activated carbon Adsorption Ciprofloxacin Nonlinear isotherm fitting Mesoporous structure
We are grateful to Centro de Microscopia Eletrônica da Zona Sul (CEME SUL–FURG) for the use of the SEM microscope. We are also grateful to Chemaxon for giving us an academic research license for the Marvin Sketch software, Version 18.23.0, (http://www.chemaxon.com), 2018, used for molecule physical-chemical properties.
This study received financial support from the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS, Process 17/2551-0001074-4), and National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq, Brazil).
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