Several environmental endocrine disruptors in beverages from South China: occurrence and human exposure

  • Hong Wu
  • Liu-Hong Wu
  • Fei Wang
  • Chong-Jing Gao
  • Da Chen
  • Ying GuoEmail author
Research Article


Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) in beverages may enter the human body by ingestion and thus may represent a potential health risk. In this study, phthalates, bisphenol A, and its analogues, parabens, benzophenone-type UV filters, and triclosan (TCS) were analyzed in beverage samples (n = 116) collected from local markets in Guangzhou, South China. Twelve of 30 target compounds were found in > 50% samples, and for the first time, TCS was found in a majority of beverages from China (~ 80%). Among all analytes, concentrations of total phthalates (median = 14.4 ng/mL) were generally two orders of magnitude higher than other target EEDs, and concentrations of total benzophenone-type UV filters (0.02 ng/mL) and TCS (0.01 ng/mL) were the lowest. Among all targets, phthalates were predominant, accounting for > 99% of the total EEDs, and dimethyl phthalate was frequently detected in beverages (> 60%). In addition, we estimated the daily intake (EDI) of EEDs for Chinese populations of different age groups based on the daily consumption of beverages. The EDIs of total EEDs were the highest for toddlers (mean = 14,200 ng/kg-bw/day) followed by children and teenagers (3420 ng/kg-bw/day), adults (1950 ng/kg-bw/day), the elderly (1740 ng/kg-bw/day), and infants (70 ng/kg-bw/day). Compared to all food categories, EEDs from beverage consumption accounted for ~ 0.1% (parabens) to 20% (phthalates) of total exposure from diet. However, intakes of phthalates, bisphenols, and TCS from beverages were comparable to those from other potential sources (food, dust, personal care products, cloth, and medicines). Furthermore, the cumulative risks of EEDs by beverage consumption were not high, which indicated that EEDs in beverages might not represent a potential human health risk for Chinese populations.


Phthalate esters Parabens Bisphenols Triclosan Beverages Human exposure 



The present study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Funds for Distinguished Young Scholar of Guangdong Province, China (No. 2016A030306015), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21577050), and the Guangdong Innovative and Entrepreneurial Research Team Program, China (No. 2016ZT06N258).

Supplementary material

11356_2018_3933_MOESM1_ESM.doc (412 kb)
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hong Wu
    • 1
  • Liu-Hong Wu
    • 1
  • Fei Wang
    • 1
  • Chong-Jing Gao
    • 1
  • Da Chen
    • 1
  • Ying Guo
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Environment, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Exposure and Health, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and HealthJinan UniversityGuangzhouChina

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