Plot-scale spatiotemporal variations of CO2 concentration and flux across water–air interfaces at aquaculture shrimp ponds in a subtropical estuary

  • Yifei Zhang
  • Ping YangEmail author
  • Hong Yang
  • Lishan Tan
  • Qianqian Guo
  • Guanghui Zhao
  • Ling Li
  • Yuchuan Gao
  • Chuan TongEmail author
Research Article


Human activities have increased anthropogenic CO2 emissions, which are believed to play important roles in global warming. The spatiotemporal variations of CO2 concentration and flux at fine spatial scales in aquaculture ponds remain unclear, particularly in China, the country with the largest aquaculture. In this study, the plot-scale spatiotemporal variations of water CO2 concentration and flux, both within and among ponds, were researched in shrimp ponds in Shanyutan Wetland, Min River Estuary, Southeast China. The average water CO2 concentration and flux across the water–air interface in the shrimp ponds over the shrimp farming period varied from 22.79 ± 0.54 to 186.66 ± 8.71 μmol L−1 and from − 0.50 ± 0.04 to 2.87 ± 0.78 mol m−2 day−1, respectively. There was no remarkable difference in CO2 concentration and flux within the ponds, but significantly spatiotemporal differences in CO2 flux were observed between shrimp ponds. Chlorophyll a, pH, salinity, air temperature, and morphometry were the important factors driving the spatiotemporal patterns of CO2 flux in the shrimp ponds. Our findings highlighted the importance and spatiotemporal variations of CO2 flux in the important coastal ecosystems.


Carbon dioxide Plot scale Spatiotemporal variation Aquaculture ponds Subtropical estuary 



We extend our appreciation to Dr. Linhai Zhang of the Research Centre of Wetlands in Subtropical Region, Fujian Normal University, for his provision of partial meteorological data. We also sincerely thank the reviewers, editor, and Dr. Derrick Y.F. Lai for their valuable comments.

Funding information

This research was funded by the National Science Foundation of China (No. 41801070, 41671088), the Graduate Student Science and Technology Innovation Project of the School of Geographical Science, Fujian Normal University (No. 20160768) and Minjiang Sholar Programme.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Humid Subtropical Eco-geographical Process of Ministry of EducationFujian Normal UniversityFuzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Geographical SciencesFujian Normal UniversityFuzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Research Centre of Wetlands in Subtropical RegionFujian Normal UniversityFuzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of Geography and Environmental ScienceUniversity of ReadingReadingUK
  5. 5.College of Environmental Science and EngineeringFujian Normal UniversityFuzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  6. 6.Nanping Meteorological BureauNanpingPeople’s Republic of China

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