Integrating supply and demand in cultural ecosystem services assessment: a case study of Cuihua Mountain (China)

  • Qiqi Zhao
  • Jing Li
  • Jingya Liu
  • Yuda Cuan
  • Cheng Zhang
Research Article


As human demand for ecosystem services (ES) continues to increase, ES assessments have gradually become a popular research topic. Among ES, cultural ES (CES) are often overlooked and are difficult to measure during research because of their invisibility. However, the importance and usage of CES increase with supply and demand, which is key to linking the ecosystem with human well-being. This paper quantitatively evaluates various cultural services and generates corresponding Value Index (VI) maps; it then further explores the current dynamics of supply and demand. We selected Cuihua Mountain (CM) as the study area, and we applied the Social Values of Ecosystem Services (SolVES) model to evaluate CES and generated five specific VI maps to indicate the potential service stock (ES capacity). The actual supply (ES supply) is based on the attribute of the visibility of observation points on leisure routes, and the visitors (ES demand) to the service come from socio-economic data as a measure of the rates of access to entertainment venues. The supply and demand relationship (ES budget) solves the significant problems related to the oversupply and shortage of ES in space. The results showed that the CES supply power of CM is greater than the actual demand; thus, there is great potential for future development. This study also provided a reference and guidance for environmental decision-making and development in other regions.


SolVES model Cultural ecosystem services Spatially explicit Cuihua Mountain Supply and demand 


Funding information

This work was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant numbers 41771198 and 41771576). Additional funding was provided by the Innovation Funds of Graduate Programs, Shaanxi Normal University (grant number 2017CSY010).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geography and TourismShaanxi Normal UniversityXi’anChina

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