Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 3723–3730 | Cite as

Acute triflumuron exposure induces oxidative stress responses in liver and kidney of Balb/C mice

  • Rim Timoumi
  • Ines Amara
  • Fadwa Neffati
  • Mohamed Fadhel Najjar
  • Emna El Golli-Bennour
  • Hassen Bacha
  • Salwa Abid-EssefiEmail author
Research Article


Triflumuron (TFM) is one of the most widely used insecticides over the world. It is a benzoylphenyl urea that belongs to the class of insect growth regulators. This insecticide acts by inhibiting insect’s chitin synthesis and by consequences, making insect more susceptible to pathogens and malformations. TFM effects have been reported in mammalians and crops. However, studies that reveal its toxicity mechanisms are limited. In this line, the current study aimed to determine the implication of oxidative stress in the toxicity induced by TFM and particularly in the perturbation of biochemical parameters in male Balb/C mice. Male Balb/C mice were divided into three groups receiving TFM at doses of 250, 350, and 500 mg/kg bw respectively. The occurrence of oxidative stress in both kidney and liver tissues was monitored by measuring of oxidative stress markers. TFM caused an increase as protein carbonyls generation, malondialdehyde induction (MDA) and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathion peroxidase (Gpx), as well as glutathion S transferase (GST) activities. In the same conditions, we have evaluated the effect of TFM treatment on biochemical parameters. In response to the three TFM doses, we showed significant dose dependent inductions in all tested oxidative stress markers. However, TFM caused an increase in the liver enzyme activities as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), g-glutamyltranspeptidase (GTT), and total bilirubin (BILT) in a dose-dependent manner. Equally, renal markers as urea, uric acid, albumin, and creatinine were increased in the same manner. We can conclude that oxidative damage seems to be a key determinant of TFM-induced toxicity in both liver and kidney of male Balb/C mice. Moreover, the oxidative stress is more pronounced in the liver than in the kidney. Thus, TFM may be considered as a hepatotoxic insecticide.


Triflumuron Oxidative stress Antioxidant enzyme activities Biochemical parameters 


Funding information

This research was supported by the Tunisian Ministry of Scientific Research and Technology through the laboratory for Research on Biologically Compatible Compounds, Faculty of Dentistry of Monastir.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rim Timoumi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ines Amara
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fadwa Neffati
    • 3
  • Mohamed Fadhel Najjar
    • 3
  • Emna El Golli-Bennour
    • 1
  • Hassen Bacha
    • 1
  • Salwa Abid-Essefi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory for Research on Biologically Compatible CompoundsFaculty of Dental MedicineMonastirTunisia
  2. 2.Higher Institute of Biotechnology of MonastirMonastirTunisia
  3. 3.Laboratory of Biochemistry-ToxicologyMonastir University HospitalMonastirTunisia

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