Larvicidal and pupicidal activities of eco-friendly phenolic lipid products from Anacardium occidentale nutshell against arbovirus vectors
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Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus are vectors of diseases that constitute public health problems. The discovery of products capable of inhibiting their development which are less harmful to the environment would have a huge impact on vector control. Here, natural cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), technical CNSL, anacardic acid, cardanol, and cardol were isolated from Anacardium occidentale and evaluated for larvicidal and pupicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus under laboratory and field conditions. The activities of phenol, resorcinol, salicylic acid, and pentadecane, commercial chemicals similar in structure to nut shell derivatives, were also evaluated. All of the fractions extracted from A. occidentale oil exerted larvicidal effects against both mosquito species (LC50 5.4–22.6 mg/L), and two of the aforementioned were effective against pupae (LC50 90.8–109.7 mg/L). Of all the fractions tested, cardol demonstrated the strongest larvicidal and pupicidal effects and presented the most prolonged residual activity against the larvae and pupae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus under field conditions. This study suggests that A. occidentale nut shell derivatives are sustainable and promising candidates for the development of novel insecticides to overcome the problem of harmful chemical insecticides.
KeywordsAedes aegypti Culex quinquefasciatus Insecticidal activity Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) Field experiment Cardol Cardanol Anacardic acid
We would like to thank EMBRAPA Genetic Resources and Biotechnology for providing the third instar larvae and pupae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus.
This work was supported by grants and fellowships awarded by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES, grant 923/18 CAPES-COFECUB), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, INCT-MCTI/CNPq/CAPES/FAPs 16/2014), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Distrito Federal (FAP-DF, grants 0913.000.417/2016 and 0193.001803/2017), and the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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