Sustainable utilization of a recovered struvite/diatomite compound for lead immobilization in contaminated soil: potential, mechanism, efficiency, and risk assessment
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A waste–struvite/diatomite compound (MAP@Dia) recovered from nutrient-rich wastewater treated by MgO-modified diatomite (MgO@Dia) was provided to immobilize lead in aqueous solution and contaminated soil. The mechanism and effectiveness of lead immobilization was investigated, and the pHstat leaching test and fixed-bed column experiments were carried out to assess the risk of MAP@Dia reuse for lead immobilization. The results showed that MAP@Dia were effective in immobilizing lead in aqueous solution with adsorption capacity of 832.47–946.50 mg/g. The main mechanism of Pb immobilization by MAP@Dia could be contributed by surface complexation and dissolution of struvite followed by precipitation of hydroxypyromorphite Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2. Lead(II) concentration reduced from 269.61 to 78.26 mg/kg, and residual lead(II) increased to 53.14% in contaminated soil when the MAP@Dia application rate was 5%. The increased neutralization capacity (ANC) and lower lead extraction yields in pHstat leaching test in amended soil suggested 5 times of buffering capacity against potential acidic stresses and delayed triggering of “chemical time bombs.” The results of column studies demonstrated that amendment with MAP@Dia could reduce the risk of lead and phosphorus (P) leaching. This study revealed that MAP@Dia could provide an effective solution for both P recycling and lead immobilization in contaminated soil.
KeywordsP reuse Lead immobilization Struvite Risk assessment Diatomite Soil
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41571301, No. 51678421, and No. 21777120).
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