Using the method of dynamic factors for assessing the transfer of chemical elements from soil to plants from various perspectives

  • Edita Baltrėnaitė
  • Pranas Baltrėnas
Appropriate Technologies to Combat Water Pollution


Environmental, biological, and ecosystem-specific properties may influence the transfer of chemical elements (CEs) from soils to plants, including the variation in the chemical elements’ concentration, their types, and physiological parameters, such as biotransformation ability in the plants. The interface between the soil and a plant, or the concentration of a particular chemical element in a plant with respect to its concentration in the soil, is the basis for a widely used biological absorption coefficient, also known as the transfer factor, bioaccumulation factor, mobility ratio, or plant-soil coefficient, which is expressed in terms of the chemical element’s concentration in the plant and soil. However, from the biogeochemical perspective, these coefficients/factors can provide a comparison of the chemical element (CE) concentration in different media (plants and soil), but only in a particular place (under typical environmental conditions) and at a particular time. However, factors that highlight the variation in the processes, rather than the variation in the chemical element quantity under the conditions of the environmental variation, are required. The second-level or dynamic factors can be used for this purpose. A quantitative method, using the dynamic factors of bioaccumulation, biophilicity, translocation, bioavailability, and phytoremediation, is offered to assess the variation in the process of the uptake of chemical elements by different plants, to evaluate the influence of soil modification on their participation in the plants’ metabolism and to perform quantitative evaluation of phytoremediation efficiency over a particular period of time. The use of dynamic factors for describing the chemical elements’ uptake by plants in various cases, representing aerogenic and edaphic chemical elements’ transfer, is discussed.


Bioremediation Chemical elements Dynamic factors Soil-plant system Uptake of chemical elements 



The authors thank Prof Dr Arvydas Lietuvninkas for his ideas in developing the dynamic factor method.

We dedicate this paper in memoriam to Prof Dr Habil Vida Stravinskienė, who was internationally recognized and outstanding Lithuanian researcher in bioindication and biomonitoring.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Environmental Protection, Faculty of Environmental EngineeringVilnius Gediminas Technical UniversityVilniusLithuania

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