Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 3530–3541 | Cite as

Genotoxicity of inhalational anesthetics and its relationship with the polymorphisms of GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 genes

  • Fatemeh Kargar Shouroki
  • Masoud NeghabEmail author
  • Hossein Mozdarani
  • Hamzeh Alipour
  • Saeed Yousefinejad
  • Reza Fardid
Research Article


Due to their wide applications, concern exists regarding possible genotoxic effects of inhalational anesthetics (IAs) among operating room personnel. This study was undertaken to examine genotoxic properties of co-exposure to nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, and isoflurane on induction of micronucleus (MN) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and to determine whether any associations exist between polymorphisms of GST genes and the level of genomic damage measured by MN and CAs assays. Sixty operating room personnel and 60 unexposed referent nurses were studied. The workers’ exposure to the IAs was determined. DNA damage was evaluated by MN and CAs assays. Additionally, the GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms were detected. The mean concentrations of nitrous oxide, isoflurane, and sevoflurane were found to be 850.92 ± 919.78, 2.40 ± 0.86, and 0.18 ± 0.14 ppm, respectively. The frequency of MN and CAs in the exposed group was significantly higher than that of the non-exposed group. The frequency of MN was significantly higher in referent nurses with null GSTT1, compared to referent nurses with positive GSTT1. The frequency of MN was significantly higher in exposed individuals carrying the combined genotype of GSTT1 (−), GSTM1 (−), and GSTP1 AG as compared with subjects carrying a combination of GSTT1 (+), GSTM1 (+), and GSTP1 AA. Statistically significant associations were noted between exposure to the IAs, gender, and the combination of the three GSTs genotypes with MN frequency. These findings indicate that inhalation exposure to IAs induces genotoxic response and the polymorphisms of GSTs genes might modulate the effect of exposure to IAs on MN.


Operating room Micronucleus Chromosomal aberrations GST genes polymorphisms 



The materials embodied in this manuscript have been emanated from the PhD thesis of Mrs. Kargar Shouroki, the first author of this paper, supervised by Professor Neghab and Professor Mozdarani.

Funding information

This work was supported by the Shiraz University of Medical Science (SUMS) under Grant (95-01-04-12366).

Compliance with ethical standards

The study was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 as revised in 2013 (WMA 2013).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fatemeh Kargar Shouroki
    • 1
  • Masoud Neghab
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hossein Mozdarani
    • 3
  • Hamzeh Alipour
    • 4
  • Saeed Yousefinejad
    • 5
  • Reza Fardid
    • 6
  1. 1.Student Research CommitteeShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran
  2. 2.Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Institute of Health, School of HealthShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran
  3. 3.Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medical SciencesTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran
  4. 4.Research Center for Health Sciences, Institute of healthShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran
  5. 5.Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of HealthShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran
  6. 6.Department of Radiology, School of Paramedical SciencesShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran

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