Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 3055–3064 | Cite as

Effects of extreme temperatures on hospital emergency room visits for respiratory diseases in Beijing, China

  • Yuxia MaEmail author
  • Jianding Zhou
  • Sixu Yang
  • Zhiang Yu
  • Fei Wang
  • Ji ZhouEmail author
Research Article


Extreme temperature is closely associated with human health, but limited evidence is available for the effects of extreme temperatures on respiratory diseases in China. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of extreme temperatures on hospital emergency room (ER) visits for respiratory diseases in Beijing, China. We used a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) coupled with a generalized additive model (GAM) to estimate the association between extreme temperatures and hospital ER visits for different age and gender subgroups in Beijing from 2009 to 2012. The results showed that the exposure-response curve between temperature and hospital ER visits was almost W-shaped, with increasing relative risks (RRs) at extremely low temperature. In the whole year period, strong acute hot effects were observed, especially for the elders (age > 65 years). The highest RR associated with the extremely high temperature was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.96–1.92) at lag 0–27. The longer-lasting cold effects were found the strongest at lag 0–27 for children (age ≤ 15 years) and the relative risk was 1.96 (95% CI, 1.70–2.26). We also found that females were more susceptible to extreme temperatures than males.


Extreme temperatures Distributed lag non-linear model Emergency room visits Respiratory diseases 


Funding information

This work is supported by Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities Grant No. lzujbky-2017-69, National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant No. 41475095, No. 91737101, and No. 41561037. Part of the work is funded by a Scholarship awarded to Yuxia Ma (File No.201308625022) supported by the China Scholarship Council (CSC).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_3855_MOESM1_ESM.doc (390 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 390 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Atmospheric Sciences, Key Laboratory of Semi-Arid Climate Change, Ministry of EducationLanzhou UniversityLanzhouChina
  2. 2.Tacheng Meteorology BureauXinjiangChina
  3. 3.Shanghai Key Laboratory of Meteorology and HealthShanghaiChina

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