Enrichment assessment of Sb and trace metals in sediments with significant variability of background concentration in detailed scale
- 59 Downloads
Variability of background concentration of toxic trace metal(loid)s in sediments can often lead to under/over-report of contamination level, even in detailed scale. In this study, both surface (5–10 cm) and subsurface (> 10 cm) sediments were collected at many sites in a small lake (0.528 km2) with multi-function (irrigation, aquaculture, and watercourse) in an industrial area. Total concentration of trace metal(loid)s (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb, Pb, and Zn) and potential reference elements (Ti, Zr, Rb, and Li) were analyzed. The results showed that although the trace metal(loid)s were mainly lithogenic in subsurface sediments, the variability of baseline concentration was significant. For Sb, this variability was a result of alteration in hydrological parameters as well as sediment properties including Fe/Mn oxide contents, particle size distribution, and organic matter contents. Comparison of the normalized Sb concentration in samples from two sediment cores indicated that Ti is the best reference element for normalizing Sb to reduce the impact from particle size and natural source. Enrichment assessment using modified EFs (Ti as reference element) and Igeo index (measured baseline concentration) suggested that about 70% of the surface sediments were at least moderately polluted by Sb in the lake, as a result of recent anthropogenic input, mainly from nearby industries, e.g., concrete factory and textile factory. Modified EFs should be used, instead of Igeo index, when Sb enrichment was relatively low in sediment. The anomalies of Sb background concentration may need regulator attention when assessing the level of sediment contamination.
KeywordsAntimony Detailed scale Enrichment factors Geoaccumulation index Baseline concentration
The authors want to thank Mr. Jiliang Sun from Shanghai Tongji Environmental Engineering Co. Ltd. for his effort in sediment sampling.
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41601229 and 51679140) and the Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education of China (YRWEF201603).
- Bock, R., 2001. Handbuch der Analytisch-Chemischen Aufschlussmethoden. Wiley-VCH, GermanyGoogle Scholar
- EU, 2008. European Union risk assessment report diantimony trioxide, in: CAS No: 1309-64-4, E.N.-.-. (Ed.). Office for official publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, Rapporteur: SwedenGoogle Scholar
- Kabata-Pendias, A., Pendias, H., 2001. Trace elements in soils and plants [electronic resource], 3rd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.Google Scholar
- Kabata-Pendias, A., Mukherjee, A.B., 2007. Trace elements from soil to human. Springer, Berlin ; New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Kaushik, A., Kansal, A., Santosh, Meena, Kumari, S., Kaushik, C.P., 2009. Heavy metal contamination of river Yamuna, Haryana, India: assessment by metal enrichment factor of the sediments. J Hazard Mater 164, 265–270Google Scholar
- Lark, R.M., Hamilton, E.M., Kaninga, B., Maseka, K.K., Mutondo, M., Sakala, G.M., Watts, M.J., 2017. Planning spatial sampling of the soil from an uncertain reconnaissance variogram. 3, 1–20Google Scholar
- Liu RL, Li ST, Wang XB, Wang M (2005) Contents of heavy metal in commercial organic fertilizers and organic wastes. J Agro-Environ Sci 24:392–397Google Scholar
- Müller G (1969) Index of geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. GeoJournal 2:109–118Google Scholar
- Mao L, Ye H, Li F, Tao H, Shi L, Chen L, Shi W, Yan G, Chen H (2017) Source-oriented variation in trace metal distribution and fractionation in sediments from developing aquaculture area—a case study in south Hangzhou Bay, China. In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol 125, pp 389–398Google Scholar
- Okkenhaug G, Grasshorn Gebhardt K-A, Amstaetter K, Lassen Bue H, Herzel H, Mariussen E, Rossebø Almås Å, Cornelissen G, Breedveld GD, Rasmussen G, Mulder J (2016) Antimony (Sb) and lead (Pb) in contaminated shooting range soils: Sb and Pb mobility and immobilization by iron based sorbents, a field study. J Hazard Mater 307:336–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang QH, Dong YX, Zheng W, Zhou GH (2007) Soil geochemical baseline values and environmental background values in Zhejiang, China. Geol Bull China 26:590–597Google Scholar