Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 2929–2938 | Cite as

Economic growth, natural resources, and ecological footprints: evidence from Pakistan

  • Syed Tauseef HassanEmail author
  • Enjun Xia
  • Noor Hashim Khan
  • Sayed Mohsin Ali Shah
Research Article


The ecological footprint, a measure of human demand on earth’s ecosystems, represents the amount of biologically productive land and sea area that is necessary to supply the resources a human population consumes and to mitigate associated waste. This study estimates the impact of economic growth and natural resources on Pakistan’s ecological footprint using an autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) model for long-run estimation. The empirical findings indicate that natural resources have a positive effect on an ecological footprint that deteriorates environmental quality and that natural resources help to support the environmental Kuznets hypothesis (EKC). Bidirectional causality is found between natural resources and the ecological footprint, along with a long-run causality between biocapacity and the ecological footprint. The innovative findings have important implications for policy.


Natural resources Ecological footprint Economic growth ARDL Pakistan 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Syed Tauseef Hassan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Enjun Xia
    • 1
  • Noor Hashim Khan
    • 1
  • Sayed Mohsin Ali Shah
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Management and EconomicsBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Central University of Finance and EconomicsBeijingChina

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