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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 991–999 | Cite as

Pure ultra-fine carbon particles do not exert pro-coagulation and inflammatory effects on microvascular endothelial cells

  • Hossein Dinmohammadi
  • Zahra Pirdel
  • Laleh Salarilak
  • Marc Hoylaerts
  • Reza Nejatbakhsh
  • Alireza Biglari
  • Marc Jacquemin
  • Tina Shahani
Short Research and Discussion Article

Abstract

Pro-thrombotic and inflammatory changes play an important role in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, resulting from short-term exposure to fine particulate air-pollution. Part of those effects has been attributed to the ultra-fine particles (UFPs) that pass through the lung and directly contact blood-exposed and circulating cells. Despite UFP-induced platelet activation, it is unclear whether the penetrated particles exert any direct effect on endothelial cells. While exposure levels are boosting as a result of world-wide increases in economic development and desertification, which create more air-polluted regions, as well as increase in demands for synthetic UFPs in medicine and various industries, further studies on the health effects of these particles are required. In this study, human pulmonary and cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (MECs) have been exposed to 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μg/ml suspensions of either a natural (carbon black) or a synthetic (multi-walled carbon nano-tubes) type of UFPs, in vitro. As a result, no changes in the levels of coagulation factor VIII, Von Willebrand factor, Interleukin 8, and P-selectin measured in the cells’ supernatant were observed prior to and 6, 12, and 24 h after exposure. In parallel, the spatio-temporal effect of UFPs on cardiac MECs was evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Despite phagocytic uptake of pure UFPs observed on cellular sections of the treated cells, Weibel-Palade bodies remained intact in shape and similar in number when compared with the untreated cells. Our work shows that carbon itself is a non-toxic carrier for endothelial cells.

Keywords

Human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells Human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells FVIII VWF IL-8 P-selectin Weibel-Palade bodies 

Abbreviations

FVIII

Coagulation factor VIII

FVIII:C

FVIII activity

HCMEC

Human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells

HPMEC

Human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells

IL-8

Interleukin 8

LOD

Limit of detection

PM

Particulate matter

PMA

Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate

UFP

Ultra-fine particle

VWF

Von-Willebrand factor

WPB

Weibel-Palade body

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

Notes

Acknowledgements

Special thanks to Mrs. Zahra Ramezani for her technical support with TEM at Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics Department of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Authors’ contributions

HD, MH, and TSH wrote the manuscript. HD, ZP, LS, and RN performed/analyzed the experiments. MH, AB, MJ, and TSH contributed to the study design and data analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding information

This work is supported by Zanjan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS) grant number A-12-776-2 and Iran’s National Institute for Medical Research Development (NIMAD) grant number 940200.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethics approval

The study was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration and approved by Zanjan University of Medical Sciences Ethics Committee (ZUMS.REC.1394.132; 01-Sept 2015).

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Availability of data and material

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding authors on reasonable request.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_3783_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (62 kb)
Figure S1 Effect of CB and MWCNTs on endothelial cell viability assayed by MTT test. Cells were incubated with 10 and 100 μg/ml of CB or MWCNTs for 24 h. The values for cell viability represent the mean of three experiments shown as percentage to the untreated cells, indicated as controls. Error bars represent standard deviation (SD). The abbreviations are: CB (Carbon Black), MWCNTs (Multi-wall Carbon Nano-Tube). * P value <0.001. (PDF 62 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, School of MedicineZanjan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS)ZanjanIran
  2. 2.Department of Cardiovascular SciencesCenter for Molecular and Vascular Biology, KU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  3. 3.Department of Anatomy, School of MedicineZanjan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS)ZanjanIran

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