Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 1983–1993 | Cite as

Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in fresh water fishes of three bird sanctuaries in Tamil Nadu, India

  • Jayakumar SamiduraiEmail author
  • Muralidharan Subramanian
  • Dhananjayan Venugopal
Research Article


Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues were determined in nine species of fresh water fishes caught from three bird sanctuaries in Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 302 fishes were analyzed for various types of OCPS. OCPs, namely hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan, and dieldrin were detected among various species of fishes. Among the various OCPs analyzed, HCH was the most frequently detected pesticides. Among the HCH isomers, β HCH contributed more than 50% to the Σ HCH. p,p’ DDT, the metabolites of DDT, had high percentage of occurrence. Among the cyclodiene insecticide residues, endosulfan was detected in more than 60% of the fishes. Varying levels of ΣOCPs (a sum of Σ HCH, Σ DDT, Σ endosulfan, heptachlor epoxide, and dieldrin) were detected in various fish species, although it was not significant (p > 0.05). However, significant variations in OCPs were observed among location and between seasons (p < 0.05). However, continuous monitoring is recommended to facilitate the early identification of risks not only to the fishes, but also to fish-eating birds breeding in these sanctuaries.


Organochlorine pesticides Fishes Bird sanctuaries Colonial fish-eating birds India Vedanthangal Koonthankulam Vettangudi 



We are grateful to Tamil Nadu Forest Department for permitting us to collect samples from the study areas. We are thankful to the Director, SACON, Coimbatore for his support. We appreciate Mrs. P. Navamani, S. Patturajan, P. Murugesan, and T. Manikandan for their assistance in the laboratory.

Funding information

This study is financially supported provided by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India.


  1. Aamir M, Khan S, Nawab J, Qamar Z, Khan A (2016) Tissue distribution of HCH and DDT congeners and human health risk associated with consumption of fish collected from Kabul River, Pakistan. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 125:128–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akhtar MW, Sengupt D, Chowdhury A (2009) Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards. Interdiscip Toxicol 2(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amaraneni SR, Pillala RR (2001) Concentration of residue in tissues of fish from Kolleru Lake in India. Department of inorganic and analytical chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University, John Wiley and Sons. Environ Toxicol 16:550–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barni MF, Ondarza PM, Gonzalez M, Da Cuña R, Meijide F, Grosman F, Sanzano P, Lo Nostro FL, Miglioranza KS (2016) Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish with different feeding habits inhabiting a shallow lake ecosystem. Sci Total Environ 550:900–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Battu RS, Gupta SC, Chawla RP, Kalra RL (1984) Residues of DDT and BHC in market samples of meat of various animals. Ind J Ecol 2:177–182Google Scholar
  6. Bijoy Nandan BS, Nimila Lindane PJ (2012) Toxicity: histo-pathological, behavioral and biochemical changes in Etroplus maculatus (Bloch, 1795). Mar Environ Res 76:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Colborn T, vom Saal FS, Soto AM (1993) Developmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans. Environ Health Perspect 101:378–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Daniels RJR (2002) Freshwater fishes of peninsular India. Universities Press, Hyderabad, 287Google Scholar
  9. Dash AP, Raghavendra K, Pillai MKK (2007) Resurrection of DDT: a critical appraisal. Indian J Med Res 126:1–3Google Scholar
  10. Dhananjayan V (2013) Accumulation pattern of persistent organochlorine pesticides in liver tissues of various species of birds from India. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20(5):3149–3156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dhananjayan V, Muralidharan S (2010) Organochlorine pesticide residues in inland wetland fishes of Karnataka, India and their implications on human dietary intake. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 85:619–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dhananjayan V, Muralidharan S (2013) Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in various tissues of white-backed vulture in India. Biomed Res Int 2013:190353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dhananjayan V, Ravichandran B (2013). Organochlorine pesticide residues in foodstuffs, fish, wildlife and human tissues from India: historical trend and contamination status. In: Abdul Malik and Elisabeth Grohmann (eds), Environmental deterioration and human health: natural and anthropogenic determinants. Chapter 10, pp 229–262, Springer, The Netherlands, ISBN: 978-94-007-7889-4Google Scholar
  14. Dhananjayan V, Ravichandran B (2018) Occupational health risk of farmers exposed to pesticides in agricultural activities. Current Opin Environ Sci & Health 4:31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dhananjayan V, Muralidharan S, Ranapratap S (2011) Organochlorine pesticide residues in eggs and tissues of house sparrow, Passer domesticus, from Tamil Nadu, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 87(6):684–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dhananjayan V, Ravichandran B, Rajmohan HR (2012) Organochlorine pesticide residues in blood samples of agriculture and sheep wool workers in Bangalore (rural), India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88(4):497–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dua VK, Kumari R, Sharma VP (1996) HCH and DDT contamination of rural ponds of India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 57:568–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. El Nemr A, Said TO, Jimenez B, Khaled B, El Sikaily A, Abd Allah AMA (2003) Polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in mussels collected from the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 71:290–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eqani SAMAS, Malik RN, Cincinelli A, Zhang G, Mohammad A, Qadir A, Rashid A, Bokhari H, Jones KC, Katsoyiannis A (2013) Uptake of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by river water fish: the case of River Chenab. Sci Total Environ 450:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. FAO/WHO (1967) Evaluation of some pesticide residues in food. FAO, PL:CP/15; WHO/Food Add./67.32Google Scholar
  21. FDA 2011 Fish and fisheries products hazards and controls guidance, 4th ed. US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Centre for Food Safety and Appl Nutr, 468Google Scholar
  22. Huertas D, Grimalt JO, Jover L, Sanpera C (2016) Chemosphere influence of diet in the accumulation of organochlorine compounds in herons breeding in remote riverine environments. Chemosp 145:438–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jabber SMA, Khan YSA, Rahman MS (2001) Organochlorine pesticide residues in the muscles of three fishes from the Ganges Estuary, Bangladesh. Int J Ecol Environ Sci 27:111–116Google Scholar
  24. Jit S, Dadhwal M, Kumari H, Jindal S, Kaur J, Lata P (2011) Evaluation of Hexachlorocyclohexane contamination from the last lindane production plant operating in India. Environ Sci Pollut Res 18(4):586–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kaur M, Sharma JK, Gill JP, Aulakh RS, Bedi JS, Joia BS (2008) Determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in freshwater fish species in Punjab, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 80:154–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kumari A, Sinha RK, Gopal K (2001) Quantitative estimation of DDT residues in some freshwater fishes of river Ganga at Patna. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 57:568–574Google Scholar
  27. Li YF, Cai DJ, Singh A (1998) Technical hexachlorocyclohexane use trends in China and their impact on the environment. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 35:688–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Malik A, Singh VK, Singh KP (2007) Occurrence and distribution of persistent trace organics in rainwater in an urban region (India). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 79(6):639–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Malik A, Ojha P, Singh KP (2009) Levels and distribution of persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in water and sediments of Gomti River (India)—a tributary of the Ganges River. Environ Monit Assess 148(1–4):421–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Masci M, Orban E, Nevigato T (2014) Organochlorine pesticide residues: an extensive monitoring of Italian fishery and aquaculture. Chemosp 94:190–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mishra K, Sharma RC, Kumar S (2013) Contamination profile of DDT and HCH in surface sediment sand their spatial distribution from North-East India. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 95:113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Misra V (1989) Monitoring and surveillance of pesticidal pollution of Mahala water reservoir with special reference to its avifauna. Ph.D thesis, Rajasthan University, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  33. Mohindru SM (2005) Food contaminants-origins, propagation and anlaysis: analysis of pesticide-insecticides in/on foods. APH publishing corporation, New Delhi, India, p 93Google Scholar
  34. Muralidharan S, Dhananjayan V, Jayanthi P (2009) Organochlorine pesticides in commercial marine fishes of Coimbatore, India and their suitability for human consumption. Environ Res 109:15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mutiyar PK, Mittal AK (2013) Status of organochlorine pesticides in Ganges river basin: anthropogenic or glacial? Drink Water Eng Sci Discuss 6:69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Newell AJ, Johnson DW, Allen LK (1987) Niagara River biota contamination project: Fish flesh criteria for piscivorous wildlife. Tech Rep 87–3, New York Department of Environmental Conservation, Bureau of Environmental ProtectionGoogle Scholar
  37. Newsome WH, Andrews P (1993) Total organochlorine content of fish from the Great Lakes. J AOAC Int 76:703–706Google Scholar
  38. Nigam U, Siddiqui MKJ (2001) Organochlorine insecticide residues in dairy milk samples collected in Lucknow, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 66:678–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pandit GG, Sahut SK, Sharma S, Puranic VD (2006) Distribution and fate of persistent organochlorine pesticides in coastal marine environment of Mumbai. Environ Int 32:240–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Raina V, Suar M, Singh A, Prakash O, Dadhwal M, Gupta SK, Dogra C, Lawlor K, Lal S, van der Meer JR, Holliger C, Lal R (2008) Enhanced biodegradation of hexachlorocyclohexane in contaminated soils via inoculation with Sphingobium indicum. Biodeg 19(1):27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Raizada RB (1989) Organochloride pesticide residues in certain fish. Report to Department of Environment 19/8586/REGoogle Scholar
  42. Ramesh A, Tanabe S, Murase H, Subramanian AN, Tatsukawa R (1991) Distribution and behavior of persistent oraganochlorine insecticides in paddy soil and sediments in the tropical environment: a case study in South India. Environ Pollut 74:293–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Robinson T, Ali U, Mahmood A, Chaudhry MJI, Li J, Zhang G, Jones KC, Malik RN (2016) Concentrations and patterns of organochlorines in various fish species from the Indus River, Pakistan: a human health risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 541:1232–1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sankar TV, Zynudheen AA, Anandan R, Fair PGV (2006) Distribution of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metal residues in fish and shellfish from Calicut region, Kerala, India. Chemosp 65:583–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sericano JL, Wade TL, Atlas FT, Brooks JM (1990) Historical perspective on the environmental bioavailability of DDT and its derivatives to Gulf of Mexico oysters. Environ Sci Technol 24:1541–1548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sharma BM, Bharat GK, Tayal S, Nizzetto L, Čupr P, Larssen T (2014) Environment and human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in India: a systematic review of recent and historical data. Environ Int 66:48–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Singh PB, Singh V (2008) Bioaccumulation of hexachlorocyclohexane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and estradiol-17β in catfish and carp during the pre-monsoon season in India. Fish Physiol Biochem 34:25–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thomas M, Lazartigues A, Banas D, Brun-Bellut J, Feidt C (2012) Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments and fish from fresh water cultured fish ponds in different agricultural contexts in north-eastern France. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 77:35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Verhaert V, Covaci A, Bouillon S, Abrantes K, Musibono D, Bervoets L, Verheyen E, Blust R (2013) Baseline levels and trophic transfer of persistent organic pollutants in sediments and biota from the Congo River Basin (DR Congo). Environ t Int 59:290–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Verhaert V, Newmark N, D'Hollander W, Covaci A, Vlok W, Wepener V, Addo-Bediako A, Jooste A, Teuchies J, Blust R, Bervoets L (2017) Persistent organic pollutants in the Olifants River Basin, South Africa: bioaccumulation and trophic transfer through a subtropica. Sci Total Environ,
  51. Vijayan VS, Muralidharan S (1999) Pesticide Contamination in the District Nilgiris with special reference to select Avifauna, Project report submitted to MoEF, Government of India, 36Google Scholar
  52. Vijayan VS, Prasad SN, Vijayan L, Muralidharan S (2004) Inland wetlands of India: conservation priorities. Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Coimbatore, pp xxvi–x532Google Scholar
  53. Vinay M (2013) Cytogenetic effects of the insecticides: imidacloprid and lambda cyhalothrin in mice. PhD thesis, Maharshi Dayanand University, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  54. Walker CH (2001) Organic pollutants. An ecotoxicological perspective. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  55. Walker K, Vallero DA, Lewis RG (1999) Factor influencing the distribution of lindane and other hexachlorocyclohexanes in the environment. Environ Sci Technol 33:4373–4378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wang J, Liang W, Henkelmann B, Pfister G, Schramm KW (2015) Organochlorine pesticides accumulated by SPMD-based virtual organisms and feral fish in Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Environ Pollut 202:160–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. World Health Organisazation (2004) DDT and its derivates. In: guidliness for drinking water quality, 3rd ed. GenevaGoogle Scholar
  58. Wu WZ, Schramm KW, Henkelmann B, Xu Y, Yediler A, Kettrup A (1997) PCDD/Fs, PCBs, HCHs and HCB in sediments and soils of Ya-Er Lake area in China: results on residue levels and correlation to the organic carbon and the particle size. Chemosp 34:191–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wu Y, Zhang J, Zhou Q (1999) Persistent organic residues in sediments from Chinese river/estuary systems. Environ Pollut 105:143–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yohannes YB, Ikenaka Y, Saengtienchai A, Watanabe KP, Nakayama SMM, Ishizuka M (2014) Concentration sand human health risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in edible fish species from a Rift Valley lake—Lake Ziway, Ethiopia. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 106:95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zynudheen AA, Radhakrishnan AG (2004) Pesticide residue in fresh water fishes of Saurashtra regions. Fish Technol 41:133–138Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of EcotoxicologySálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural HistoryCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.P.G. Research Department of Zoology and Wildlife BiologyA.V.C. College (Autonomous)MayiladuthuraiIndia
  3. 3.Industrial Hygiene & Toxicology DivisionRegional Occupational Health Centre (S), ICMR-NIOHBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations