Advertisement

The enhanced lipid productivity of Chlorella minutissima and Chlorella pyrenoidosa by carbon coupling nitrogen manipulation for biodiesel production

  • Supriya Bharte
  • Krutika Desai
Research Article
  • 35 Downloads

Abstract

Biodiesel production from microalgae has been researched extensively and attempted to commercialize on a large scale, but there are major hurdles in the production process like harvesting and low lipid content, which should be studied to enhance the process and make it economical. Present study aimed to improve the lipid productivity of Chlorella minutissima and Chlorella pyrenoidosa by modifying the carbon and nitrogen content of the medium. Both organisms were grown in BG11 medium for the first 6 days and thereafter grown in a modified BG11 medium completely deprived of nitrogen for 2 to 10 days. Nitrogen deprivation increased the lipid productivity of Chlorella minutissima to 20% and that of Chlorella pyrenoidosa to 17.6% by day 6. This was further coupled with carbon addition in the form of citric acid (5 g/L), sodium acetate (5 g/L), sodium carbonate (5 g/L), and sodium potassium tartarate (5 g/L), which increased the total lipid productivity of Chlorella minutissima up to 24% and that of Chlorella pyrenoidosa up to 23%. The highest lipid productivity of up to 24% for Chlorella minutissima and up to 23% for Chlorella pyrenoidosa was observed with nitrogen deprivation coupled with sodium acetate. Acidic transesterification revealed the presence of fatty acid methyl esters, majority of which consisted of hexadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecanoic acid methyl ester. Maximum of 3% fatty acid methyl esters for Chlorella minutissima and 4% for Chlorella pyrenoidosa were obtained under nitrogen deprivation and sodium acetate as a carbon source. Thus, nitrogen deprivation coupled with sodium acetate as an increased carbon source in BG11 medium helps to increase the lipid productivity of Chlorella minutissima and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and produces long-chain fatty acid methyl esters of C17 and C19 along with C21, C25, and C29.

Keywords

Chlorella minutissima Chlorella pyrenoidosa Changing carbon-nitrogen content Lipid production Sulpho-phospho-vanillin assay Fatty acid methyl esters 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank S.P. Mandali’s Ramnarain Ruia autonomous college for helping with GC-MS analysis, and Mr. Mitesh Joshi for helping with the figures and tables.

Compliance with ethical standards

This work does not involve any kind of animal work.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Arora N, Patel A, Pruthi PA, Pruthi V (2016) Synergistic dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorous influences lipid productivity in Chlorella minutissima for biodiesel production. Corresponding author, Elsevier Ltd.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.02.112
  2. Bligh EG, Dyer WJ (1959) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 37(8):911–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brennan L, Owende P (2010) Biofuels from microalgae-a review of technologies for production, processing, and extractions of biofuels and co-products. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14(2):557–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cao J, Yuan HL, Li BZ, Yang JS (2014) Significance evaluation of the effects of environmental factors on the lipid accumulation of Chlorella minutissima UTEX 2341 under low-nutrition heterotrophic condition. Bioresour Technol 152:177–184. Available at.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.10.084 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chisti Y (2008) Biodiesel from microalgae beats bioethanol. Trends Biotechnol 26(3):126–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Griffiths MJ, Harrison STL (2009) Lipid productivity as a key characteristic for choosing algal species for biodiesel production. J Appl Phycol 21(5):493–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Han F, Huang J, Li Y, Wang W, Wan M, Shen G, Wang J (2013) Enhanced lipid productivity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through the culture strategy of semi-continuous cultivation with nitrogen limitation and pH control by CO2. Bioresour Technol 136:418–424.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.03.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hsieh CH, Wu WT (2009) Cultivation of microalgae for oil production with a cultivation strategy of urea limitation. Bioresour Technol 100(17):3921–3926.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.03.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hu Q, Sommerfeld M, Jarvis E, Ghirardi M, Posewitz M, Seibert M, Darzins A (2008) Microalgal triacylglycerols as feedstocks for biofuel production: perspectives and advances. Plant J 54(4):621–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Illman AM, Scragg AH, Shales SW (2000) Increase in Chlorella strains calorific values when grown in low nitrogen medium. Enzym Microb Technol 27(8):631–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kotzabasis K, Hatziathanasiou, Bengoa-Ruigomez MV, Kentouri M, Divanach P (1999) Methanol as alternative carbon source for quicker efficient production of the microalgae Chlorella minutissima: Role of the concentration and frequence of administration. J Biotechnol 70:357–362Google Scholar
  12. Li Y, Horsman M, Wang B, Wu N, Lan CQ (2008) Effects of nitrogen sources on cell growth and lipid accumulation of green alga Neochloris oleoabundans. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 81(4):629–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Li ZS, Yuan HL, Yang JS, Li BZ (2011) Optimization of the biomass production of oil algae Chlorella minutissima UTEX2341. Bioresour Technol 102(19):9128–9134.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li C, Yu Y, Zhnag D, Liu J, Ren N, Feng Y (2014) Combined effects of carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen on lipid accumulation of Chlorella vulgaris in mixotrophic culture. SCI.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.4623
  15. Li Y, Han F, Xu H, Mu J, Chen D, Feng B, Zeng H (2014b) Potential lipid accumulation and growth characteristic of the green alga Chlorella with combination cultivation mode of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Bioresour Technol 174:24–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.09.142 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mishra SK, Suh WI, Farooq W, Moon M, Shrivastav A, Park MS, Yang JW (2014) Rapid quantification of microalgal lipids in aqueous medium by a simple colorimetric method. Bioresour Technol 155:330–333.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.12.077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Muradyan EA, Klyachko-Gurvich GL, Tsoglin LN, Sergeyenko TV, Pronina NA (2004) Changes in lipid metabolism during adaptation of the Dunaliella salina photosynthetic apparatus to high CO2 concentration. Russ J Plant Physiol 51(1):53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nigam S, Rai MP, Sharma R (2011) Effect of nitrogen on growth and lipid content of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Am J Biochem Biotechnol 7(3):126–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Oh SH, Kwon MC, Choi WY, Seo YC, Kim GB, Kang DH, Lee SY, Lee HY (2010) Long-term outdoor cultivation by perfusing spent medium for biodiesel production from Chlorella minutissima. J Biosci Bioeng 110(2):194–200.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2010.02.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pal D, Khozin-Goldberg I, Cohen Z, Boussiba S (2011) The effect of light, salinity, and nitrogen availability on lipid production by Nannochloropsis sp. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 90(4):1429–1441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Přibyl P, Cepák V, Zachleder V (2012) Production of lipids in 10 strains of chlorella and parachlorella, and enhanced lipid productivity in chlorella vulgaris. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 94(2):549–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Siaut M, Cuiné S, Cagnon C, Fessler B, Nguyen M, Carrier P, Beyly A, Beisson F, Triantaphylidès C, Li-Beisson Y, Peltier G (2011) Oil accumulation in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: characterization, variability between common laboratory strains and relationship with starch reserves. BMC Biotechnol 11(1):7 Available at: http://bmcbiotechnol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6750-11-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Vazhappilly R, Chen F (1998) Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid production potential of microalgae and their heterotrophic growth. J Am Oil Chem Soc 75(3):393–397 Available at: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11746-998-0057-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wang H, Xiong H, Hui Z, Zeng X (2012) Mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa with diluted primary piggery wastewater to produce lipids. Bioresour Technol 104:215–220.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.11.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wen X, Geng Y, Li Y (2014) Enhanced lipid production in Chlorella pyrenoidosa by continuous culture. Bioresour Technol 161:297–303.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.03.077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yang JS, Rasa E, Tantayotai P, Scow KM, Yuan HL, Hristova KR (2011) Mathematical model of Chlorella minutissima UTEX2341 growth and lipid production under photoheterotrophic fermentation conditions. Bioresour Technol 102(3):3077–3082.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.10.049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yang JS, Cao J, Xing GL, Yuan HL (2015) Lipid production combined with biosorption and bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, manganese and zinc by oleaginous microalgae Chlorella minutissima UTEX2341. Bioresour Technol 175:537–544.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.10.124 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yu Z, Pei H, Jiang L, Hou Q, Nie C, Zhang L (2017) Phytochrome addition coupled with nitrogen depletion almost tripled the lipid productivities in two algae. Bioresour Technol 247:904–914.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.09.192 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological Sciences, Sunandan Divatia School of ScienceSVKM’s NMIMS (Deemed-to-be) UniversityMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologySVKM’s Mithibai College of Arts, Chauhan Institute of Science & Amrutben Jivanlal College of Commerce and EconomicsMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations