Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 1947–1953 | Cite as

Relationship between cadmium content in semen and male infertility: a meta-analysis

  • Yiming Zhang
  • Shiping LiEmail author
  • Shu LiEmail author
Research Article


Meta-analysis with high-quality studies can provide superior evidence. In this paper, we use meta-analysis to analyze the relationship between cadmium (Cd) content in semen and male infertility, and then objectively evaluate the effect of Cd on sperm quality. The objectives of this study were to update our understanding of infertility and to provide evidence to treat and prevent the infertility. We searched potentially relevant studies that were published from establishing database data to April 2018. Articles came from the databases of CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, PubMed, CMCI, and EMBASE. A total of 11 articles were included. We gathered the mean and variance of the infertility group and the control group to compare the Cd content in two groups. In total, the 11 studies include 1707 subjects, 1093 of which were in the infertility group and 614 of which were in the control group. We can get some information from this meta-analysis: SMD = 0.50 (95% Cl 0.39–0.61), Z = 8.92, P < 0.05; the funnel plot of the meta-analysis shows incomplete symmetry, which may have the publication bias. Therefore, the high content of Cd in semen is a causative factor of infertility. The Cd content in semen can be used as an indicator of sperm quality.


Infertility Cadmium Meta-analysis Semen 



The authors thank Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Laboratory Animals and Comparative Medicine.


This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31472161).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Veterinary MedicineNortheast Agricultural UniversityHarbinPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Animal Science and TechnologyNortheast Agricultural UniversityHarbinPeople’s Republic of China

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