A novel approach to preparation of nano-adsorbent from agricultural wastes (Saccharum officinarum leaves) and its environmental application

  • Durairaj Kaliannan
  • Senthilkumar PalaninaickerEmail author
  • Velmurugan Palanivel
  • Mahadik A. Mahadeo
  • Bulakhe N. Ravindra
  • Shim Jae-Jin
Analytical methods for characterization of nano- and micro-objects


Saccharum officinarum leaves (SL) assisted nano-silica (NS) were synthesized and used as adsorbent to remove Pb2+ and Zn2+ from aqueous solutions. The crystalline nature, functional group, and morphology structure of synthesized NS were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with EDS mapping, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface area and charge of the NS were also analyzed by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and zeta potential analysis. Removal efficiency of Pb2+ and Zn2+ from aqueous solutions was carried out under batch mode studies (pH, dose, equilibrium time with initial heavy weight metal ion concentration). The adsorption parameters were determined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Langmuir, and Freundlich models. The kinetics and isotherms data were well fitted with pseudo-second-order and both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacities for Pb2+ and Zn2+ onto NS at room temperature (37 °C) were found to be 148 mg/g and 137 mg/g, respectively. Finally, we conclude that the NS synthesized from SL leaves (agricultural waste material) were found to be economically viable, promising adsorbent for metal ions from aqueous solutions and also efficient technology for waste management.


Saccharum officinarum leaves Nano-adsorbent Metal removal Kinetics Isotherms 



All the authors gratefully acknowledge Dr. S. Boopathi, Assistant Professor, Department of English, Periyar University, for making the English language correction of the manuscript. The authors Ravindra N. Bulakhe and Jae-Jin Shim are highly thankful to the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by Ministry of Education (2014R1A6A1031189), Republic of Korea, for providing the instrumental analysis.


Financial assistance was provided to the author D. Kalianna (09/810/0025/2018 EMR-I) by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, in the form of Senior Research Fellowship (SRF).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Durairaj Kaliannan
    • 1
  • Senthilkumar Palaninaicker
    • 1
    Email author
  • Velmurugan Palanivel
    • 2
  • Mahadik A. Mahadeo
    • 3
  • Bulakhe N. Ravindra
    • 4
  • Shim Jae-Jin
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science, School of Life SciencesPeriyar UniversitySalemIndia
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologySri Sankara Arts and Science CollegeEnathurIndia
  3. 3.Division of Biotechnology, Safety, Environment and Life Science Institute, College of Environmental and Bioresource SciencesChonbuk National UniversityIksanSouth Korea
  4. 4.School of Chemical EngineeringYeungnam UniversityGyeongsanSouth Korea

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