Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 1693–1705 | Cite as

Aging as the main factor controlling PAH and polar-PAC (polycyclic aromatic compound) release mechanisms in historically coal-tar-contaminated soils

  • Marine Boulangé
  • Catherine Lorgeoux
  • Coralie Biache
  • Julien Michel
  • Raymond Michels
  • Pierre FaureEmail author
Research Article

Abstract

In industrial sites, historically contaminated by coal tar (abandoned coking and manufactured gas plants), other families of organic pollutants than the 16 PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) classified by the US-EPA can occur and induce potential risk for groundwater resources. Polar PACs (polycyclic aromatic compounds), especially oxygenated and nitrogenated PACs (O-PACs and N-PACs), are present in the initial pollution and can also be generated over time (i.e., O-PACs). Their aqueous solubilities are much greater than those of the PAHs. For these reasons, we need to increase our knowledge on polar PACs in order to better predict their behavior and the potential on-site risk. Batch leaching tests were carried out under various conditions of temperature, ionic strength, and availability of pollutants to determine the mechanisms and key parameters controlling their release. The results show a release of low-molecular-weight PAHs and polar PACs mainly by dissolution, while higher molecular weight PAHs are mainly released in association with colloids. Aging mainly controls the former mechanism, and ionic strength mainly controls the latter. Temperature increased both dissolution and colloidal mobilization. The Raoult law predicts the PAC equilibrium concentration for soils presenting high pollutant availability, but this law overestimates PAC concentration in aged soils (low pollutant availability). This is mainly due to limitation of PAC diffusion within coal-tar particles with aging. The most soluble PACs (especially polar PACs) are the most sensitive to aging. For better prediction of the PAC behavior in soils and water resources management, aging needs to be taken into account.

Keywords

Availability Ionic strength Oxygenated PACs Nitrogenated PACs Groundwater Colloidal mobilization 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge Y. Duclos from the Agence de l’Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l’Énergie (ADEME) for many scientific discussions. Arcelor Mittal company (especially P. Charbonnier) and the GISFI (French scientific interest group on soil pollution (http://www.gisfi.univ-lorraine.fr) and especially N. Enjelvin) are acknowledged for providing the two coking plant soils used in this work. D. Billet and A. Razafitianamaharavo from the LIEC laboratory are acknowledged respectively for the dissolved organic carbon measurements and the specific area determination by BET.

Funding information

This work was supported by ADEME, INERIS, and CNRS.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_3708_MOESM1_ESM.docx (256 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 255 kb)

References

  1. Abu A, Smith S (2006) Mechanistic characterization of adsorption and slow desorption of phenanthrene aged in soils. Environ Sci Technol 40:5409–5414.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es060489h CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AFNOR (1975) Determination of the area per unit of mass (specific surface) of powders by gas absorption - B.E.T. method: volumetric measurement by absorption of nitrogen at low temperature. La Plaine Saint-Denis Cedex. ed.Google Scholar
  3. Benhabib K, Simonnot M-O, Sardin M (2006) PAHs and organic matter partitioning and mass transfer from coal tar particles to water. Environ Sci Technol 40:6038–6043.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es0600431 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bi E, Schmidt TC, Haderlein SB (2006) Sorption of heterocyclic organic compounds to reference soils: column studies for process identification. Environ Sci Technol 40:5962–5970.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es060470e CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biache C, Ghislain T, Faure P, Mansuy-Huault L (2011) Low temperature oxidation of a coking plant soil organic matter and its major constituents: an experimental approach to simulate a long term evolution. J Hazard Mater 188:221–230.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.01.102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biache C, Lorgeoux C, Andriatsihoarana S, Colombano S, Faure P (2015) Effect of pre-heating on the chemical oxidation efficiency: implications for the PAH availability measurement in contaminated soils. J Hazard Mater 286:55–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.12.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chin Y-P, Aiken GR, Danielsen KM (1997) Binding of pyrene to aquatic and commercial humic substances: the role of molecular weight and aromaticity. Environ Sci Technol 31:1630–1635.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es960404k CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Curtin D, Peterson ME, Anderson CR (2016) pH-dependence of organic matter solubility: base type effects on dissolved organic C, N, P, and S in soils with contrasting mineralogy. Geoderma 271:161–172.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.02.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Endo S, Xu W, Goss K-U, Schmidt TC (2008) Evaluating coal tar–water partitioning coefficient estimation methods and solute–solvent molecular interactions in tar phase. Chemosphere 73:532–538.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.06.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Enell A, Reichenberg F, Ewald G, Warfvinge P (2005) Desorption kinetics studies on PAH-contaminated soil under varying temperatures. Chemosphere 61:1529–1538.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.04.092 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Faure P (2003) Low temperature air oxidation of n-alkanes in the presence of Na-smectite. Fuel 82:1751–1762.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(03)00133-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feitkenhauer H, Märkl H (2003) Biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons at high temperatures. Water Sci Technol 47:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2006) Guidelines for soil description. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  14. Ghoshal S, Pasion C, Alshafie M (2004) Reduction of benzene and naphthalene mass transfer from crude oils by aging-induced interfacial films. Environ Sci Technol 38:2102–2110.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es034832j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hanser O, Biache C, Boulangé M, Parant S, Lorgeoux C, Billet D, Michels R, Faure P (2015) Evolution of dissolved organic matter during abiotic oxidation of coal tar— comparison with contaminated soils under natural attenuation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:1431–1443.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3465-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kanti ST, Khilar KC (2006) Review on subsurface colloids and colloid-associated contaminant transport in saturated porous media. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 119:71–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2005.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kleineidam S, Rügner H, Grathwohl P (2004) Desorption kinetics of phenanthrene in aquifer material lacks hysteresis. Environ Sci Technol 38:4169–4175.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es034846p CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lamichhane S, Bal Krishna KC, Sarukkalige R (2016) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal by sorption: a review. Chemosphere 148:336–353.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.01.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee LS, Hagwall M, Delfino JJ, Rao PSC (1992) Partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from diesel fuel into water. Environ Sci Technol 26:2104–2110.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es00035a005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu L, Endo S, Eberhardt C, Grathwohl P, Schmidt TC (2009) Partition behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between aged coal tar and water. Environ Toxicol Chem 28:1578–1584.  https://doi.org/10.1897/08-276.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lübcke-von VU, Machala M, Ciganek M, Neca J, Pencikova K, Palkova L, Vondracek J, Löffler I, Streck G, Reifferscheid G, Flückiger-Isler S, Weiss JM, Lamoree M, Brack W (2011) Polar compounds dominate in vitro effects of sediment extracts. Environ Sci Technol 45:2384–2390.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es103381y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lundstedt S, Haglund P, Öberg L (2006a) Simultaneous extraction and fractionation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives in soil using selective pressurized liquid extraction. Anal Chem 78:2993–3000.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac052178f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lundstedt S, Persson Y, Öberg L (2006b) Transformation of PAHs during ethanol-Fenton treatment of an aged gasworks’ soil. Chemosphere 65:1288–1294.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.04.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lundstedt S, White PA, Lemieux CL, Lynes KD, Lambert IB, Öberg L, Haglund P, Tysklind M (2007) Sources, fate, and toxic hazards of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at PAH-contaminated sites. Ambio 36:475–485. https://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447(2007)36[475:SFATHO]2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
  25. Luthy RG, Ramaswami A, Ghoshal S, Merkel W (1993) Interfacial films in coal tar nonaqueous-phase liquid-water systems. Environ Sci Technol 27:2914–2918.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es00049a035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mahjoub B, Jayr E, Bayard R, Gourdon R (2000) Phase partition of organic pollutants between coal tar and water under variable experimental conditions. Water Res 34:3551–3560.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(00)00100-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mannion AM (2006) Chapter 5 “The history and consequences of carbon domestication” in Carbon and its domestication. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  28. Marschner B (1998) DOM-enhanced mobilization of benzo(a) pyrene in a contaminated soil under different chemical conditions. Phys Chem Earth 23:199–203.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-1946(98)00013-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ortiz E, Kraatz M, Luthy RG (1999) Organic phase resistance to dissolution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. Environ Sci Technol 33:235–242.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es9804417 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pernot A, Ouvrard S, Leglize P, Faure P (2013) Protective role of fine silts for PAH in a former industrial soil. Environ Pollut 179:81–87.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.03.068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ryan JN, Elimelech M (1996) Colloid mobilization and transport in groundwater. Colloids Surf Physicochem Eng Asp, A collection of papers presented at the Symposium on Colloidal and Interfacial Phenomena in Aquatic Environments 107:1–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0927-7757(95)03384-X
  32. Schlanges I, Meyer D, Palm W-U, Ruck W (2008) Identification, quantification and distribution of PAC-metabolites, heterocyclic PAC and substituted PAC in groundwater samples of tar-contaminated sites from Germany. Polycycl Aromat Compd 28:320–338.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10406630802377807 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schluep M, Imboden DM, Gälli R, Zeyer J (2001) Mechanisms affecting the dissolution of nonaqueous phase liquids into the aqueous phase in slow-stirring batch systems. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:459–466.  https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620200301 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schwarzenbach RP (1993) Environmental organic chemistry. Wiley, New York 681 p, ISBN 0–471–83941–8Google Scholar
  35. Totsche KU, Kögel-Knabner I, Haas B, Geisen S, Scheibke R (2003) Preferential flow and aging of NAPL in the unsaturated soil zone of a hazardous waste site: implications for contaminant transport. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 166:102–110.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200390000 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Totsche KU, Jann S, Kögel-Knabner I (2006) Release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended matter from disturbed NAPL-contaminated gravelly soil material. Vadose Zone J 5:469–479.  https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2005.0057 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Usman M, Chaudhary A, Biache C, Faure P, Hanna K (2016) Effect of thermal pre-treatment on the availability of PAHs for successive chemical oxidation in contaminated soils. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:1371–1380.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5369-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Van Krevelen DW (1993) Coal, 3rd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam 1002pGoogle Scholar
  39. Wilcke W, Kiesewetter M, Musa Bandowe BA (2014) Microbial formation and degradation of oxygen-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) in soil during short-term incubation. Environ Pollut 184:385–390.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.09.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wincent E, Jönsson ME, Bottai M, Lundstedt S, Dreij K (2015) Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation and developmental toxicity in zebrafish in response to soil extracts containing unsubstituted and oxygenated PAHs. Environ Sci Technol 49:3869–3877.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es505588s CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Université de Lorraine, CNRS, LIECNancyFrance
  2. 2.GeoRessources labUniversité de Lorraine, CNRS, CREGUNancyFrance
  3. 3.INERIS, Direction des Risques ChroniquesVerneuil en HalatteFrance

Personalised recommendations